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2020英语备课资料:高考英语真题分项详解 专题01阅读理解之说明文2016

录入者:lgr  人气指数: 次  发布时间:2020年10月16日

专题01阅读理解之说明文2016年】

1.2016·江苏】C

El Nifio, a Spanish term for “the Christ child”, was named by South American fisherman who noticed that the global weather pattern, which happens every two to seven years, reduced the amount of fishes caught around Christmas. El Nifio sees warm water, collected over several years in the western Pacific, flow back eastwards when winds that normally blow westwards weaken, or sometimes the other way round.

The weather effects both good and bad, are felt in many places. Rich countries gain more from powerful Nifio, on balance, than they lose. A study found that a strong Nifio in 1997 helped American’s economy grow by 15 billion, partly because of better agricultural harvest, farmers in the Midwest gained from extra rain. The total rise in agricultural in rich countries in growth than the fall in poor ones.

But in Indonesia extremely dry forests are in flames. A multi-year drought (干旱in south-east Brazil is becoming worse. Though heavy rains brought about by El Nino may relieve the drought in California, they are likely to cause surface flooding and other disasters.

The most recent powerful Nino, in 1997-98, killed around 21,000 people and caused damage worth $36 billion around the globe. But such Ninos come with months of warning, and so much is known about how they happen that governments can prepare. According to the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), however, just 12% of disaster-relief funding in the past two decades has gone on reducing risks in advance, rather than recovery and rebuilding afterwards. This is despite evidence that a dollar spent on risk-reduction saves at least two on reconstruction.

Simple improvements to infrastructure (基础设施)can reduce the spread of disease. Better sewers (下水道)make it less likely that heavy rain is followed by an outbreak of the disease of bad stomach. Stronger bridges mean villages are less likely to be left without food and medicine after floods. According to a paper in 2011 by Mr Hsiang and co-authors, civil conflict is related to El Nino’s harmful effects—and the poorer the country, the stronger the link. Though the relationship may not be causal, helping divided communities to prepare for disasters would at least reduce the risk that those disasters are followed by killing and wounding people. Since the poorest are least likely to make up for their losses from disasters linked to El Nino, reducing their losses needs to be the priority.

61.   What can we learn about El Nino in Paragraph 1?

A.It is named after a South American fisherman.

B.It takes place almost every year all over the world.

C.It forces fishermen to stop catching fish around Christmas.

D.It sees the changes of water flow direction in the ocean.

62.   What may El Ninos bring about to the countries affected?

A.Agricultural harvests in rich countries fall.

B.Droughts become more harmful than floods.

C.Rich countries’ gains are greater than their losses.

D.Poor countries suffer less from droughts economically.

63.   The data provided by ODI in Paragraph 4 suggest that_________.

A.more investment should go to risk reduction

B.  governments of poor countries need more aid

C.  victims of El Nino deserve more compensation

D. recovery and reconstruction should come first

64.   What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

A. To introduce El Nino and its origin.

B.  To explain the consequences of El Nino.

C.  To show ways of fighting against El Nino.

D.To urge people to prepare for El Nino.

【答案】61.D   62.C   63.A    64.D

【解析】本文介绍了厄尔尼诺现象对地球的影响,并告诉我们政府应该做更多的投资预防厄尔尼诺的危害而不是在出现问题以后进行重新补救和恢复。

61.细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句El Nino sees warm water, collected over several years in the western Pacific, flow back eastwards when winds that normally blow westwards weaken, or sometimes the other way round.可知厄尔尼诺现象见证了海洋中水流方向的变化。故D正确。

62.细节理解题。根据第二段第二句Rich countries gain more from powerful Nino, on balance, than they lose.可知富有国家从厄尔尼诺现象中得到的好处多于它带来的损失。C项正确。

63.推理判断题。根据第四段第三句According to the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), however, just 12% of disaster-relief funding in the past two decades has gone on reducing risks in advance, rather than recovery and rebuilding afterwards.A项正确。

64.目的意图题。根据最后一句"Since the poorest are least likely to make up for their losses from disasters linked to El Nino, reducing their losses needs to be the priority."各国政府要把减少损失放在优先的位置。也就是说我们要事先做好准备。故D项正确。

2.2016·江苏】 B

 Chimps(黑猩猩) will cooperate in certain ways, like gathering in war parties to protect their territory. But beyond the minimum requirements as social beings, they have little instinct (本能) to help one another. Chimps in the wild seek food for themselves. Even chimp mothers regularly decline to share food with their children. Who are able from a young age to gather their own food.

  In the laboratory, chimps don’t naturally share food either. If a chimp is put in a cage where he can pull in one plate of food for himself or, with no great effort, a plate that also provides food for a neighbor to the next cage, he will pull at random ---he just doesn’t care whether his neighbor gets fed or not. Chimps are truly selfish.

Human children, on the other hand are extremely corporative. From the earliest ages, they decide to help others, to share information and to participate a achieving common goals. The psychologist Michael Tomasello has studied this cooperativeness in a series of expensive with very young children. He finds that if babies aged 18 months see an worried adult with hands full trying to open a door, almost all will immediately try to help.

There are several reasons to believe that the urges to help, inform and share are not taught .but naturally possessed in young children. One is that these instincts appear at a very young age before most parents have started to train children to behave socially. Another is that the helping behaviors are not improved if the children are rewarded. A third reason is that social intelligence.Develops in children before their general cognitive(认知的)skills,at least when compared with chimps..In tests conducted by Tomtasell, the children did no better than the chimps on the physical world tests, but were considerably better at understanding the social world

The cure of what children’s minds have and chimps’ don’t in what Tomasello calls what. Part of this ability is that they can infer what others know or are thinking. But that, even very young children want to be part of a shared purpose. They actively seek to be part of a “we”, a group that intends to work toward a shared goal.

58. What can we learn from the experiment with chimps?

A. Chimps seldom care about others’ interests.

B. Chimps tend to provide food for their children.

C. Chimps like to take in their neighbors’ food.

D. Chimps naturally share food with each other.

59. Michael Tomasello’s tests on young children indicate that they____.

A. have the instinct to help others

B. know how to offer help to adults

C. know the world better than chimps

D. trust adults with their hands full

60. The passage is mainly about ____.

 A. the helping behaviors of young children

B. ways to train children’s shared intentionality

C. cooperation as a distinctive human nature

D. the development of intelligence in children

【答案】58.A    59.A     60.C

【解析】本文从猩猩的自私行为导入到人类无私帮助他人的本能,分析了人类愿意帮助他人、愿意与他人合作的本能的原因。

58.推理判断题。根据文章第二段中的"If a chimp is put in a cage where he can pull in one plate of food for himself or... Chimps are truly selfish"可知A项正确。

59.推理判断题。根据第三段最后一句He finds that if babies aged 18 months see an worried adult with hands full trying to open a door, almost all will immediately try to help.和第四段第一句There are several reasons to believe that the urges to help, inform and share are not taught, but naturally possessed in young children.可知A项正确。

60.主旨大意题。本文属于科普说明文,作者从猩猩的自私行为导入到人类无私帮助他人的本能,分析了人类愿意帮助他人、愿意与他人合作的本能的原因。ABD项都属于文章的部分内容,并非中心思想。故C项正确。

3.2016·浙江】C

A scientist working at her lab bench and a six-old baby playing with his food might seem to have little in common.After all,the scientist is engaged in serious research to uncover the very nature of the physical world,and the baby is,well, just playing…right?Perhaps,but some developmental psychologists have argued that this “play” is  more like a scientific investigation than one might think.

Take a closer look at the baby playing at the table. Each time the bowl of rice is pushed over the table edge, it

falls in the ground---and, in the process, it belongs out important evidence about how physical objects interact ; bowls of rice do not flood in mid-sit, but require support to remain stable. It is likely that babies are not born knowing the basic fact of the universe; nor are they ever clearly taught it. Instead, babies may form an understanding of object support through repeated experiments and then build on this knowledge to learn even more about how objects interact. Though their ranges and tools differ, the baby’s investigation and the scientist’s experiment appear to share the same aim(to learn about the natural world ), overall approach (gathering direct evidence from the world), and logic (are my observations what I expected?).

Some psychologists suggest that young children learn about more than just the physical world in this way---that they investigate human psychology and the rules of language  using similar means. For example, it may only be through repeated experiments, evidence gathering, and finally overturning a theory, that a baby will come to accept the idea that other people can have different views and desires from what he or she has. for example, unlike the child , Mommy actually doesn’t like Dove chocolate.

Viewing childhood development as a scientific investigation throws on how children learn ,but it also offers an inspiring look at science and scientists. Why do young children and scientists seem to be so much alike? Psychologists have suggested that science as an effort ---the desire to explore, explain, and understand our world---is simply something that comes from our babyhood. Perhaps evolution provided human babies with curiosity and a natural drive to explain their worlds, and adult scientists simply make use of the same drive that served them as children. The same cognitive systems that make young children feel good about feel good about figuring something out may have been adopted by adult scientists. As some psychologists put it, ”It is not that children are little scientists but that scientists are big children.”

50. According to some developmental psychologists,

A. a baby’s play is nothing more than a game.

B. scientific research into babies; games is possible

C. the nature of babies’ play has been thoroughly investigated

D. a baby’s play is somehow similar to a scientist’s experiment

51.We learn from Paragraph 2 that

A. scientists and babies seem to observe the world differently

B. scientists and babies often interact with each other

C. babies are born with the knowledge of object support

D. babies seem to collect evidence just as scientists do

52. Children may learn the rules of language by

A. exploring the physical world      B. investigating human psychology

C. repeating their own experiments   D. observing their parents’ behaviors

53. What is themain idea of the last paragraph?

A. The world may be more clearly explained through children’s play.

B. Studying babies’ play may lead to a better understanding of science.

C. Children may have greater ability to figure out things than scientists.

D. One’s drive for scientific research may become stronger as he grows.

54. What is the author’s tone when he discusses the connection between scientists’ research and babies’ play?

 A. Convincing.    B. Confused.      C. Confidence.   D. Cautious.

【语篇解读】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了孩子的玩耍和科学家的研究有共同之处。

50. 【答案】

【解析】根据文章第一段的but some developmental psychologists have argued that this “play” is more like a scientific investigation than one might think,可知心理学家觉得孩子的玩耍和科学家的研究有些相似,故选D

51. 【答案】D

【解析】根据文章第二段的overall approach (gathering direct evidence from the world)可知孩子也会像科学家一样收集证据,故选D

52. 【答案】C

【解析】根据文章第三段的句子For example, it may only be through repeated experiments, evidence gathering and finally overturning a theory可知孩子可以通过重复自己的实验来学习语言的规律,故选C

53. 【答案】B

【解析】根据最后一段的句子viewing childhood development as scientific investigation throws light on how children learn, but it also offers an inspiring look at science and scientists.可知,研究孩子可以让人们更好的了解科学,故选B

54. 【答案】D

【解析】根据作者在文中的用词appear tomay来弱化绝对性的表达,和通过引用其他人的观点some psychologist suggest/argue that 可知,作者的语气是谨慎的。故选D

4.2016·天津】C

When John was growing up, other kids felt sorry for him. His parents always had him weeding the garden, carrying out the garbage and delivering newspapers. But when John reached adulthood, he was better off than his childhood playmates. He had more job satisfaction, a better marriage and was healthier. Most of all, he was happier. Far happier.

These are the findings of a 40-year study that followed the lives of 456 teenage boys from Boston. The study showed that those who had worked as boys enjoyed happier and more productive lives than those who had not. “Boys who worked in the home or community gained competence (能力) and came to feel they were worthwhile members of society,” said George Vaillant, the psychologist (心理学家) who made the discovery. “And because they felt good about themselves, others felt good about them.”

Vaillant’s study followed these males in great detail. Interviews were repeated at ages 25, 31 and 47. Under Vaillant, the researchers compared the men’s mental-health scores with their boyhood-activity scores with their boyhood-activity scores. Points were awarded for part-time jobs, housework, effort in school, and ability to deal with problems.

The link between what the men had done as boys and how they turned out as adults was surprisingly sharp. Those who had done the most boyhood activities were twice as likely to have warm relations with a wide variety of people, five times as likely to be well paid and 16 times less likely to have been unemployed. The researchers also found that IQ and family social and economic class made no real difference in how the boys turned out. Working----at any age----is important. Childhood activities help a child develop responsibility, independence, confidence and competence---the underpinnings (基础) of emotional health. They also help him understand that people must cooperate and work toward common goal学科网(www.zxxk.com)--教育资源门户,提供试卷、教案、课件、论文、素材及各类教学资源下载,还有大量而丰富的教学相关资讯!s. The most competent adults are those who know how to do this. Yet work isn’t everything. As Tolstoy once said, “One can live magnificently in this world if one knows how to work and how to love, to work for the person one loves and to love one’s work.”

46. What do we know about John?

A. He enjoyed his career and marriage.

B. He had few childhood playmates.

C. He received little love from his family.

D. He was envied by others in his childhood.

47. Vaillant’s words in Paragraph 2 serve as _____.

A. a description of personal values and social values

B. an analysis of how work was related to competence

C. an example for parents’ expectations of their children

D. an explanation why some boys grew into happy men

48. Vaillant’s team obtained their findings by _____.

A. recording the boys’ effort in school

B. evaluating the men’s mental health

C. comparing different sets of scores

D. measuring the men’s problem solving ability

49. What does the underlined word “sharp” probably mean in Paragraph 4?

A. Quick to react

B. Having a thin edge

C. Clear and definite

D. sudden and rapid

50. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A. competent adults know more about love than work.

B. Emotional health is essential to a wonderful adult life.

C. Love brings more joy to people than work does.

D. Independence is the key to one’s success.

【语篇解读】这是一篇说明文。文章通过John的例子结合一个研究发现说明童年时期帮助做一些家务的孩子长大后会更快乐,更成功。

46.【答案】A

【解析】根据第一段的句子He had more job satisfaction, a better marriage and was healthier.,可知,John喜欢他的事业和婚姻。故选A

47.【答案】D

【解析】根据第二段的句子Boys who worked in the home or community gained competence and came to feel they were worthwhile members of society,可知,第二段Vaillant的话是解释为什么一些男孩成长为快乐的人。故选D

48.【答案】C

【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段的句子The researchers compared the men’s mental-health scores with their boyhood-activity scores,可知,Vaillant的团队获得他们的发现是通过对比不同的得分。故选C

49.     【答案】C

【解析】根据第四段的句子The link between what the men had done as boys and how they turned out as

adults was surprisingly sharp(这些人在孩子的时候做的事情和他们成人后是怎样的人之间的关联是令人惊讶地明显),结合下面一句进一步可知,这里sharp的意思是明确的,一定的。故选C

50.     【答案】B

【解析】根据最后一段的句子One can live magnificently in this world if one knows how to work and how

too love, to work for the person one loves and to love one’s work,可知,情感健康对于好的成年人生活是基本的。故选B

5.2016·北京】D

Why College Is Not Home

The college years are supposed to be a time for important growth in autonomy(自主性) and the development of adult identity. However, now they are becoming an extended period of adolescence, during which many of today’s students and are not shouldered with adult responsibilities.

For previous generations, college was decisive break from parental control; guidance and support needed help from people of the same age and from within. In the past two decades, however, continued connection with and dependence on family, thanks to cellphones, email and social media, have increased significantly. Some parents go so far as to help with coursework. Instead of promoting the idea of college as a passagefrom the shelter of the family to autonomy and adult responsibility, universities have given in to the idea that they should provide the same environment as that of the home.

To prepare for increased autonomy and responsibility, college needs to be a time of exploration and experimentation. This process involves “trying on ” new ways of thinking about oneself both intellectually(在思维方面) and personally. While we should provide “safe spaces” within colleges, we must also make it safe to express opinions and challenge majority views. Intellectual growth and flexibility are fostered on debate and questioning.

Learning to deal with the social world is equally important. Because a college community(群体) differs from the family, many students will struggle to find a sense of belonging. If students rely on administrators to regulate their social behavior and thinking pattern, they are not facing the challenge of finding an identity within a larger and complex community.

Moreover, the tendency for universities to monitor and shape student behavior runs up against another characteristic of young adults: the response to being controlled by their elders. If acceptable social behavior is too strictly defined(规定) and controlled, the insensitive or aggressive behavior that administrators are seeking to minimize may actually be encouraged.

It is not surprising that young people are likely to burst out, particularly when there are reasons to do so. Our generation once joined hands and stood firm at times of national emergency. What is lacking today is the conflict between adolescent’s desire for autonomy and their understanding of an unsafe world. Therefore, there is the desire for their dorms to be replacement homes and not places to experience intellectual growth.

Every college discussion about community values, social climate and behavior should include recognition of the developmental importance of student autonomy and self-regulation, of the necessary tension between safety and self-discovery.

67.What’s the author’s attitude toward continued parental guidance to college students?

A.Sympathetic                          B.Disapproving

C.Supportive                           D.Neutral

68.The underlined word “passage” in Paragraph 2 means.

A.change                              B.choice

C.text                                 D.extension

69.According to the author,what role should college play?

A.to develop a shared identity among students

B.to define and regulate students’ social behavior

C.To provide a safe world without tension for students

D.To foster students’ intellectual and personal development

70.Which of the following shows the development of ideas in the passage?

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【答案】67.B   68.A   69.D    70.C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。本文介绍的是大学生自主性和成人身份认同的相关情况。最近二十年来的大学生比以往任何时候依赖于家庭,对自己应付的社会责任感下降,所以大学应该意识到培养学生自我发展和自我规范的重要性。

67.【答案】B【解析】推理判断题。根据第一段The college years are supposed to be a time for important growth in autonomy(自主性) and the development of adult identity. However, now they are becoming an extended period of adolescence, during which many of today’s students are not shouldered with adult responsibilities.可知,大学时代应该是自主发展和准备成为成年人的重要时期。然而,现在他们正成为一个青春期的延长期,在这期间,当今的学生没有承担成年人的责任。作者认为,大学不应该成为孩子们依赖的,故判断出作者不赞成父母继续指导上大学的孩子。故选B

68.【答案】A【解析】根据“from the shelter of the family to autonomy and adult responsibility”可知,从受家庭的庇护到有自主性和肩负成年人的责任,这是一种转变、变化,故判断出划线词的意思是改变的意思。故选A

69.【答案】D【解析】根据第三段Intellectual growth and flexibility are fostered by strict debate and questioning. 智力的增长和灵活性是通过严格的辩论和提问培养出来的。根据最后一段Every college discussion about community values, social climate and behavior should include recognition of the developmental importance of student autonomy and self-regulation, of the necessary tension between safety and self-discovery. 每一个大学关于社区价值观、社会气氛和行为的讨论,都应该包括对学生自主和自我调节的发展重要性的认识,以及对安全和自我发现之间必要的张力的认识。由此判断出,根据作者,大学应该扮演培养学生的智力和个人发展的角色。故选D

70.【答案】C【解析】通读全篇可知,第一段提出论点,大学发展应该是大学时代应该是自主发展和准备成为成年人的重要时期,但现在他们正成为一个青春期的延长期,当今的学生没有承担成年人的责任。第二段分析其原因,目前这一代人,大学阶段本应该是独立阶段,而父母包办过多。第三,四段从学校和个人角度如何培养责任感和社交能力。第五,六段是三四段的延伸。最后一段呼吁大学应该意识到培养学生自我发展和自我规范的重要性。结合选项,故选C项。

6.2016·全国新课标IIID

Bad news sells. If it bleeds, it leads. No news is good news, and good news is no news. Those are the classic rules for the evening broadcasts and the morning papers.But now that information is being spread and monitored(监控) in different ways, researchers are discovering new rules. By tracking people’s e-mails and online posts, scientists have found that good news can spread faster and farther than disasters and sob stories.

  “The ‘if it bleeds’ rule works for mass media,” says Jonah Berger, a scholar at the University of Pennsylvania. “They want your eyeballs and don’t care how you’re feeling. But when you share a story with your friends, you care a lot more how they react. You don’t want them to think of you as a Debbie Downer.”

Researchers analyzing word-of-mouth communication—e-mails, Web posts and reviews, face-to-face conversations—found that it tended to be more positive than negative(消极的), but that didn’t necessarily mean people preferred positive news. Was positive news shared more often simply because people experienced more good things than bad things? To test for that possibility, Dr. Berger looked at how people spread a particular set of news stories: thousands of articles on The New York Times’ website. He and a Penn colleague analyzed the “most e-mailed” list for six months. One of his first findings was that articles in the science section were much more likely to make the list than non-science articles. He found that science amazed Times’ readers and made them want to share this positive feeling with others.

Readers also tended to share articles that were exciting or funny, or that inspired negative feelings like anger or anxiety, but not articles that left them merely sad. They needed to be aroused(激发) one way or the other, and they preferred good news to bad. The more positive an article, the more likely it was to be shared, as Dr. Berger explains in his new book, “Contagious: Why Things Catch On.”

12 .What do the classic rules mentioned in the text apply to?

A. News reports.              B. Research papers.

C.Private e-mails.             D. Daily conversations

13.What can we infer about people like Debbie Downer?

A. They’re socially inactive.

B. They’re good at telling stories.

C. They’re inconsiderate of others.

D. They’re careful with their words.

14.Which tended to be the most e-mailed according to Dr. Berger’s research?

A . Sports new.        B. Science articles.

C. Personal accounts.         D. Financial reviews.

15 .What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. Sad Stories Travel Far and Wide

B .Online News Attracts More People

C. Reading Habits Change with the Times

D. Good News Beats Bad on Social Networks

【答案】12.A   13.C   14.B   15.D

【解析】人们常说"没有消息就是最好的消息",类似的传统说法只适合于大众媒体。在网络普及的时代,好消息在网络上的传播速度比坏消息要快很多。

12.【答案】A【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段The ‘if it bleeds’ rule works for mass media可知it bleeds这样的传统说法适用于大众媒体故选A

13.【答案】C【解析】推理判断题。根据you care a lot more how they react可知你非常在乎朋友听完你讲的故事后的反应根据You don’t want them to think of you as a Debbie Downer.可知你不想被当作一个Debbie Downer",说明Debbie Downer指的是一个不为他人考虑的人",故选C

14.【答案】B【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段articles in the science section were much more likely to make the list than non-science articles可知科技类的文章比非科技类的更有可能被人们讨论故选B

15.【答案】D【解析】标题归纳题。根据第一段By tracking people’s e-mails and online posts, scientists have found that good news can spread faster and farther than disasters and sob stories.可知好消息在网络上传播得更快影响更深远说明文章主要讲的是好消息通过网络的传播故选D

7.2016·全国新课标IIIC

If you are a fruit grower—or would like to become one—take advantage of Apple Day to see what’s around.

It’s called Apple Day but in practice it’s more like Apple Month. The day itself is on October 21, but sinceit has caught on, events now spread out over most of October around Britain.

Visiting an apple event is a good chance to see, and often taste, a wide variety of apples. To people who are used to the limited choice of apples such as Golden Delicious and Royal Gala in supermarkets, it can be quite an eye opener to see the range of classical apples still in existence, such as Decio which was grown by the Romans. Although it doesn’t taste of anything special, it’s still worth a try, as is the knobbly(多疙瘩的) Cat’s Head which is more of a curiosity than anything else.

There are also varieties developed to suit specific local conditions. One of the very best varieties for eating quality is Orleans Reinette, but you’ll need a warm, sheltered place with perfect soil to grow it, so it’s a pipe dream for most apple lovers who fall for it.

At the events, you can meet expert growers and discuss which ones will best suit your conditions, and because these are family affairs, children are well catered for with apple-themed fun and games.

Apple Days are being held at all sorts of places with an interest in fruit, including stately gardens and commercial orchards(果园).If you want to have a real orchard experience, try visiting the National Fruit Collection at Brogdale, near Faversham in Kent.

8.What can people do at the apple events?

 A. Attend experts’ lectures.       B. Visit fruit-loving families.

 C. Plant fruit trees in an orchard.   D. Taste many kinds of apples.

9.What can we learn about Decio?

A. It is a new variety.             B. It has a strange look.

 C. It is rarely seen now.          D. It has a special taste.

10.What does the underlined phrase “a pipe dream” in Paragraph 3mean?

 A. A practical idea.                 B. A vain hope.

C.A brilliant plan.                  D. A selfish desire.

11.What is the author’s purpose in writing the text?

A. To show how to grow apples.

B .To introduce an apple festival.

C. To help people select apples.

D. To promote apple research.

【答案】8.D   9.C   10.B   11.B

【解析】作者向人们介绍了一个节日--Apple Day。由于这个节日翡翠受欢迎,现在已经演变成"苹果月"了。在英国,人们在十月份庆祝该节日,持续大约一个月的时间。

8.【答案】D【解析】细节理解题。根据第二段Visiting an apple event is a good chance to see, and often taste, a wide variety of apples.可知参加相关庆祝活动的人们可以品尝各种各样的苹果故选D

9.【答案】C【解析】推理判断题。由第二段的最后一句可知选C

10.【答案】B【解析】猜测词义题。由第三段内容可知选B

11【答案】B 【解析】写作意图题。根据第一段if you are a fruit grower—or would like to become one—take advantage of Apple Day to see what’s around. 和最后一段If you want to have a real orchard experience, try visiting the National Fruit Collection at Brogdale, near Faversham in Kent.可知,作者向读者介绍了一个节日Apple Day,并推荐人们参加这个节日,故选B

8.2016·全国新课标IIC

Reading can be a social activity. Think of the people who belong to book groups. They choose books to read and then meet to discuss them. Now, the website BookCrossing.com turns the page on the traditional idea of a book group.

Members go on the site and register the books they own and would like to share. BookCrossing provides an identification number to stick inside the book. Then the person leaves it in a public place, hoping that the book will have an adventure, traveling far and wide with each new reader who finds it.

Bruce Pederson, the managing director of BookCrossing, says, “The two things that change your life are the people you meet and books you read. BookCrossing combines both.”

Members leave books on park benches and buses, in train stations and coffee shops. Whoever finds their book will go to the site and record where they found it.

People who find a book can also leave a journal entry describing what they thought of it. E-mails are then sent to the BookCrossing to keep them updated about where their books have been found. Bruce peterson says the idea is for people not to be selfish by keeping a book to gather dust on a shelf at home.

BookCrossing is part of a trend among people who want to get back to the “real” and not the virtual(虚拟). The site now has more than one million members in more than one hundred thirty-five countries.

9. Why does the author mention book groups in the first paragraph?

A. To explain what they are.

B.To introduce BookCrossing.

C. To stress the importance of reading.  

D. To encourage readers to share their ideas.

10. What does the underlined word “it” in Paragraph 2refer to?

A. The book.  B.An adventure. 

C.A public place.   D. The identification number.

11. What will a BookCrosser do with a book after reading it?

A. Meet other readers to discuss it.  B.Keep it safe in his bookcase. 

C. Pass it on to another reader.   D. Mail it back to its owner.

12. What is the best title for the text?

A. Online Reading: A Virtual Tour  B. Electronic Books: A new Trend 

C. A Book Group Brings Tradition Back   D. A Website Links People through Books

【答案】9. B   10. A   11. C   12. D 

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了一个叫做BookCrossing的网站的功能和设置该网站的目的。

9.推理判断题。根据"Now the website BookCrossingcom turns the page on the traditional idea of a book group"(现在website BookCrossing.com为书群的想法翻开了新的篇章)可知作者在第一段提到书群是为了介绍图书漂流这个网站。故选B项。

10.词义猜测题。根据"Then the person leaves it in a public placehoping that the book will have an adventuretraveling far and wide with each new reader who finds it"(然后这个人把书放在公共场所,希望这本书可以有一个奇旅,因为每一个发现它的阅读者可以走的更远更宽)根据句意可知,it是指前半句提到的同一事物"the book"。故选A项。

11.推理判断题。根据“Members leave books on park benches and busesin train stations and coffee shopsWhoever finds their book will go to the site and record where they found it(成员可以把书留在公园长凳上,公交车上,火车站和咖啡厅。发现书的人就去网站登记他们在哪找到它的)可知,他们把书放在那些地方的目的,就是让其他人能够找到并且阅读。选项中和该目的相近的是B项:把书传递给另一个人。故选B项。

12.主旨大意题。这是一篇说明文,目的主要是介绍网站,所以答案应该以网站为中心。再根据"The two things that change your life are the people you meet and books you readBookCrossing combines both"可知该网站可以把人和书联系在一起。故选D项。

9.2016·全国新课标ID

The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups. Silences may be thoughtful, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, or worry. Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap(间隙)with conversation. Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a 

person's needs.
Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communicating among people, just as some 

traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. Therefore, when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and 

suddenlystops, what maybe implied(暗示) is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures, silence is a call for reflection.

Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic under discussion. However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority.

Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be experiencing. Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. A nurse who understands the healing(治愈) value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.

12.What does the author say about silence in conversations?

A. It implies anger.

B. It promotes friendship.

C. It is culture-specific.

D. It is content-based.

13.Which of the following people might regard silence as a call for careful thought?

A. The Chinese.

B. The French.

C. The Mexicans.

D. The Russians.

14.What does the author advise nurses to do about silence?

A. Let it continue as the patient pleases.

B. Break it while treating patients.

C. Evaluate its harm to patients.

D. Make use of its healing effects.

15.What may be the best title for the text?

A. Sound and Silence

B. What It Means to Be Silent

C. Silence to Native Americans

D. Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold

【答案】12C   13A   14D   15B

【解析】本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了沉默在不同文化背景下的不同内涵。

12.细节理解题。根据文章首段首句The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups   可知,作者认为沉默是有文化特性的。

13.细节理解题。根据第二段中 what may be implied is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing可知中国人认为谈话时人们沉默是在思考。

14.细节理解题。根据末段末句A nurse who understands the healing value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients 可知,作者建议护士要用沉默来治疗病人。故选D

15.主旨要义题。文章主要介绍了在不同文化背景下谈话期间的沉默的不同含义,由此判断B选项可以概括文章内容。故选B

10.2016·全国新课标IB

Grandparents Answer a Call

As a third generation native of Brownsville, Texas, Mildred Garza never pleased move away,. Even when her daughter and son asked her to move to San Antonio to help their children, she politely refused . Only after a year of friendly discussion did Ms Gaf finally say yes. That was four years ago. Today all three generations regard the move to a success, giving them a closer relationship than they would have had in separate cities.

No statistics show the number of grandparents like Garza who are moving closer to the children and grandchildren. Yet there is evidence suggesting that the trend is growing. Even President Obama’s mother-in-law, Marian Robinson, has agreed to leave Chicago and into the White House to help care for her granddaughters. According to a study grandparents com. 83 percent of the people said Mrs. Robinson ‘s decision will influence the grandparents in the American family. Two-thirds believe more families will follow the example of Obama’s family.

“in the 1960s we were all a little wild and couldn’t get away from home far enough fast enough to prove we could do it on our own,” says Christine Crosby, publisher of grate magazine for grandparents .We now realize how important family is and how important”” to be near them, especially when you’re raining children.”

Moving is not for everyone. Almost every grandparent wants to be with his or her grandchildren and is willing to make sacrifices, but sometimes it is wiser to say no and visit frequently instead. Having your grandchildren far away is hard, especially knowing your adult child is struggling, but giving up the life you know may be harder.

5. Why was Garza’s move a success?

AIt strengthened her family ties.

BIt improved her living conditions.

CIt enabled her make more friends.

DIt helped her know more new places.

6.What was the reaction of the public to Mrs. Robinson’s decision?

A17% expressed their support for it.

BFew people responded sympathetically.

C83% believed it had a bad influence.

DThe majority thought it was a trend.

7. What did Crosby say about people in the 1960s?

AThey were unsure of raise more children.

BThey were eager to raise more children.

CThey wanted to live away from their parents.

DThey bad little respect for their grandparent.

8.What does the author suggest the grandparents do in the lasr paragraph?

A. Make decisions in the best interests' of their own

B. Ask their children to pay more visits to them

C. Sacrifice for their struggling children

D. Get to know themselves better

【答案】5A   6D   7C   8A

【解析】本文是一篇说明文。主要介绍了社会上很多老年人搬到离子女近的地方居住的一种趋势。同时也建议老人们要做出适合自己的选择。

5.细节理解题。根据首段末句可知,Mildred Garza搬到离孩子近的地方居住让他们的关系更密切,一家人认为这是一个成功的事情。故选A

6.细节理解题。根据第二段末句Two-thirds believe more families will follow the example of Obama’s family可知,很多人会受Marian Robinson的影响,所以这会形成一种潮流。故选D

7.细节理解题。根据第三段首句可知,在20世纪60年代人们都希望离开家,以此来证明自己的独立。故选 C

8.推理判断题。根据末段推知,作者建议人们要明智,不要为了孩子而做出牺牲。故选A

11.2016·全国新课标IA

You probably know who Marie Curie was, but you may not have heard of Rachel Carson.Of the outstanding ladies listed below, who do you think was the most important woman of the past 100 years?

Jane Addams(1860-1935)

Anyone who has ever been helped by a social worker has Jane Addams to thank. Addans helped the poor and worked for peace. She encouraged a sense of community(社区)by creating shelters and promoting education and services for people in need In 1931,Addams became the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Rachel Carson(1907-1964)

If it weren’t for Rachel Carson, the environmental movement might not exist today. Her popular 1962 book Silent Spring raised awareness of the dangers of pollution and the harmful effects of chemicals on humans and on the world’s  lakes and oceans.

Sandra Day O’Connor(1930-present)

When Sandra Day O’Connor finished third in her class at Stanford Law School, in 1952,she could not find work at a law firm because she was a woman. She became an Arizona state senator(参议员) and ,in 1981, the first woman to join the  U.S. Supreme Court. O’Connor gave the deciding vote in many important cases during her 24 years on the top court.

Rosa Parks(1913-2005)

On December 1,1955,in Montgomery, Alabama,Rasa Parks would not give up her seat on a bus to a passenger. Her simple act landed Parks in prison. But it also set off the Montgmery bus boycott. It lasted for more than a year, and kicked off the civil-rights movement. “The only tired I was, was tired of giving in,” said Parks.

1.What is Jane Addams noted for in history?

A. Her social work.

B. Her lack of proper training in law.

C. Her efforts to win a prize.

D. Her community background.

2. What is the reason for O’Connor’s being rejected by the law firm?

A. Her lack of proper training in law.

B. Her little work experience in court.

C. The discrimination against women.

D. The poor financial conditions.

3. Who made a great contribution to the civil-rights movement in the US?

A. Jane Addams.   B. Rachel Carson.     C. Sandra Day O’Connor. D. Rosa Parks.

4. What can we infer about the women mentioned in the text?

A. They are highly educated.     B. They are truly creative.

C. They are pioneers.           D. They are peace-lovers.

【答案】1A  2C  3D   4C

【解析】本文是一篇说明文,主要介绍了几位著名的女性,她们在各自的领域做出了非凡的贡献。

1.细节理解题。根据第二段首句可知她是一位社会工作者,而且获得诺贝尔和平奖。故选A

2.细节理解题。根据第四段中she could not find work at a law firm because she was a woman可知,她因为是女性而被法律公司拒绝录用。故选C

3.细节理解题。根据末段倒数第二句中and kicked off the civil-rights movement可知,Rosa Parks对民权运动做出了贡献。故选D

4.推理判断题。根据文章对这几个人物的介绍可知,这些女性都是在各自的领域为社会做出贡献的先驱。故选C