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2020英语备课资料:高考英语真题分项详解 专题01阅读理解之说明文2020

录入者:lgr  人气指数: 次  发布时间:2020年10月16日

专题01阅读理解之说明文2020年】


1.2020·新课标B

Returning to a book you’ve read many times can feel like drinks with an old friend. There’s a welcome familiarity - but also sometimes a slight suspicion that time has changed you both, and thus the relationship. But books don’t change, people do. And that’s what makes the act of rereading so rich and transformative.

The beauty of rereading lies in the idea that our bond with the work is based on our present mental register. It’s true, the older I get, the more I feel time has wings. But with reading, it’s all about the present. It’s about the now and what one contributes to the now, because reading is a give and take between author and reader. Each has to pull their own weight.

There are three books I reread annually The first, which I take to reading every spring is Emest Hemningway’s A Moveable Feast. Published in 1964, it’s his classic memoir of 1920s Paris. The language is almost intoxicating (令人陶醉的)an aging writer looking back on an ambitious yet simpler time. Another is Annie Dillard’s Holy the Firm, her poetic 1975 ramble (随笔) about everything and nothing. The third book is Julio Cortazar’s Save Twilight: Selected Poems, because poetry. And because Cortazar.

While I tend to buy a lot of books, these three were given to me as gifs, which might add to the meaning I attach to them. But I imagine that, while money is indeed wonderful and necessary, rereading an author’s work is the highest currency a reader can pay them. The best books are the ones that open further as time passes. But remember, it’s you that has to grow and read and reread in order to better understand your friends.

24. Why does the author like rereading?

A. It evaluates the writer-reader relationship.

B. It’s a window to a whole new world.

C. It’s a substitute for drinking with a friend.

D. It extends the understanding of oneself.

25. What do we know about the book A Moveable Feas!?

A. It’s a brief account of a trip.

B. It’s about Hemingway’s life as a young man.

C. It’s a record of a historic event.

D. It’s about Hemingway’s friends in Paris.

26. What does the underlined word currency in paragraph 4 refer to?

A. Debt

B. Reward.

C Allowance.

D. Face value.

27. What can we infer about the author from the text?

A. He loves poetry.

B. He’s an editor.

C. He’s very ambitious.

D. He teaches reading.

【答案】24. D    25. B    26. B    27. A

【解析】这是一篇说明文。短文介绍了重新阅读的意义和益处并向读者介绍了作者每年重读的三本书。作者鼓励读者去重新阅读书籍。

24.推理判断题。根据第一段最后两句“But books don’t change, people do. And that’s what makes the act of rereading so rich and transformative.(但是书没变,人变了。那就是使重新阅读行为如此丰富和富于变化之处)”和第二段“The beauty of rereading lies in that our bond with the work is based on our present register. It is true, the older I get, the more I feel time has wings.(重新阅读的美妙之处在于我们与作品的联系是基于我们现在的心理状态。真的,我年纪越大,就越觉得时光飞逝。)”可推知,作者喜欢重新阅读是因为重新阅读可以扩展对自己的理解。故选D项。

25.推理判断题。根据倒数第二段“Published in 1964, it’s his classic memoir of 1920s Paris.”“an aging writer looking back on an ambitious yet simpler time”可知,这本书出版于1964年,这是他关于20世纪20年代在巴黎的经典回忆录,是他老年时对那些野心勃勃却更简单的日子的回顾。由此可判断出A Movable Feast是关于海明威年轻时的生活。故选B项。

26.词义猜测题。根据最后一段中“while money is indeed wonderful and necessary,(虽然金钱确实是美妙而必要的)”可知,前后句为转折关系,根据上下文的语境可推知,“rereading an author’s work is the highest currency a reader can pay them.”意为但是但重新阅读作品是读者能支付给他们的最高回报,由此判断出划线词的意思是回报。故选B项。

27.推理判断题。根据倒数第二段“The third book is Julio Cortázar’s Save Twilight: selected poems, because poetry.(第三本书是胡里奥·科塔扎的《拯救暮光之城: 诗歌精选》,因为诗歌)”可知,作者是由于喜欢诗歌而喜欢这本书。故选A项。

2.2020·新课标C

Race walking shares many fitness benefits with running, research shows, while most likely contributing to fewer injuries. It does, however, have its own problem.

Race walkers are conditioned athletes. The longest track and field event at the Summer Olympics is the 50-kilometer race walk, which is about five miles longer than the marathon. But the sport’s rules require that a race walker’s knees stay straight through most of the leg swing and one foot remain in contact (接触) with the ground at all times. It’s this strange form that makes race walking such an attractive activity, however, says Jaclyn Norberg, an assistant professor of exercise science at Salem State University in Salem, Mass.

Like running, race walking is physically demanding, she says, According to most calculations, race walkers moving at a pace of six miles per hour would burn about 800 calories(卡路里) per hour, which is approximately twice as many as they would burn walking, although fewer than running, which would probably burn about 1,000 or more calories per hour.

However, race walking does not pound the body as much as running does, Dr. Norberg says. According to her research, runners hit the ground with as much as four times their body weight per step, while race walkers, who do not leave the ground, create only about 1.4 times their body weight with each step.

As a result, she says, some of the injuries associated with running, such as runner’s knee, are uncommon among race walkers. But the sport’s strange form does place considerable stress on the ankles and hips, so people with a history of such injuries might want to be cautious in adopting the sport. In fact, anyone wishing to try race walking should probably first consult a coach or experienced racer to learn proper technique, she says. It takes some practice.

28. Why are race walkers conditioned athletes?

A. They must run long distances.

B. They are qualified for the marathon.

C. They have to follow special rules.

D. They are good at swinging their legs.

29. What advantage does race walking have over running?

A. It’s more popular at the Olympics.

B. It’s less challenging physically.

C. It’s more effective in body building.

D. It’s less likely to cause knee injuries.

30. What is Dr. Norberg’s suggestion for someone trying race walking?

A. Getting experts’ opinions.

B. Having a medical checkup.

C. Hiring an experienced coach.

D. Doing regular exercises.

31. Which word best describes the author’s attitude to race walking?

A. Skeptical.                                                        B. Objective.

C. Tolerant.                                                          D. Conservative.

【答案】28. C    29. D    30. A    31. B

【解析】这是一篇说明文。短文介绍了竞走相比跑步有诸多的优势,但是之前受过伤的人,要想从事这样运动要谨慎,最好咨询专家的建议。

28.细节理解题。根据第二段“But the sport’s rules require that a race walker’s knees stay straight through most of the leg swing and one foot remain in contact with the ground at all times.”可知,但这项运动的规则要求竞走者的膝盖在摆动腿的大部分时间保持伸直,一只脚始终与地面接触。由此可知,竞走运动员是需要具备某些条件的运动员是因为运动员需要遵守特殊的规则。故选C项。

29.细节理解题。根据最后一段“As a result, she says, some of the injuries associated with running, such as runner’s knee, are uncommon among race walkers.”可知,一些与跑步有关的损伤,比如跑步者的膝盖,在竞走者中并不常见。由此可知,竞走与跑步相比的优势是不太可能导致膝盖受伤。故选D项。

30.细节理解题。根据最后一段Dr. Norberg说的话“In fact, anyone wishing to try race walking should probably first consult a coach or experienced racer to learn proper technique(事实上,任何想尝试竞走的人都应该首先咨询教练或有经验的竞走运动员,学习适当的技巧。)”可知,Dr. Norberg建议想尝试竞走的人征询专家的建议。故选A项。

31.推理判断题。根据第一段“Race walking shares many fitness benefits with running, research shows, while most likely contributing to fewer injuries. It does, however, have its own problem.”可知,研究表明,竞走和跑步一样有很多健身益处,而且它还很少导致受伤。不过,它也有自己的问题。由此判断出作者对于竞走的态度是客观的。故选B项。

3.2020·新课标D

The connection between people and plants has long been the subject of scientific research. Recent studies have found positive effects. A study conducted in YoungstownOhiofor example, discovered that greener areas of the city experienced less crime. In anotheremployees were shown to be 15% more productive when their workplaces were decorated with houseplants.

The engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT)have taken it a step further changing the actual composition of plants in order to get them to perform diverseeven unusual functions. These include plants that have sensors printed onto their leaves to show when they’re short of water and a plant that can detect harmful chemicals in groundwater. We’re thinking about how we can engineer plants to replace functions of the things that we use every day,explained Michael Strano, a professor of chemical engineering at MIT.

One of his latest projects has been to make plants grow(发光)in experiments using some common vegetables. Strano’s team found that they could create a faint light for three-and-a-half hours. The lightabout one-thousandth of the amount needed to read byis just a start. The technology, Strano said, could one day be used to light the rooms or even to turn tree into self-powered street lamps.

in the futurethe team hopes to develop a version of the technology that can be sprayed onto plant leaves in a one-off treatment that would last the plant’s lifetime. The engineers are also trying to develop an on and offswitchwhere the glow would fade when exposed to daylight.

Lighting accounts for about 7% of the total electricity consumed in the US. Since lighting is often far removed from the power source(电源)-such as the distance from a power plant to street lamps on a remote highway-a lot of energy is lost during transmission(传输).

Glowing plants could reduce this distance and therefore help save energy.

32. What is the first paragraph mainly about?

A. A new study of different plants.

B. A big fall in crime rates.

C. Employees from various workplaces.

D. Benefits from green plants.

33. What is the function of the sensors printed on plant leaves by MIT engineer?

A. To detect plants’ lack of water

B. To change compositions of plants

C. To make the life of plants longer.

D. To test chemicals in plants.

34. What can we expect of the glowing plants in the future?

A. They will speed up energy production.

B. They may transmit electricity to the home.

C. They might help reduce energy consumption.

D. They could take the place of power plants.

35. Which of the following can be the best title for the text?

A. Can we grow more glowing plants?

B. How do we live with glowing plants?

C. Could glowing plants replace lamps?

D. How are glowing plants made pollution-free?

【答案】32. D    33. A    34. C    35. C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要说明了绿色植物对人们很有好处,因此麻省理工学院的工程师开发了一种发光植物。文章介绍了他们发明这种植物的过程,以及这种植物的一些优势,指出在未来发光植物有可能取代路灯,达到节约能源的作用。

32.主旨大意题。根据第一段中A study conducted in Youngstown, Ohio, for example ,discovered that greener areas of the city experienced less crime. In another, employees were shown to be 15% more productive when their workplaces were decorated with houseplants.可知例如,在俄亥俄州扬斯敦进行的一项研究发现,城市绿化较好的地区犯罪率较低。在另一项研究中,当员工的工作场所被室内植物装饰时,他们的工作效率会提高15%。由此可知,第一段的主旨是关于绿色植物的益处。故选D

33.细节理解题。根据第二段中These include plants that have sensors printed on their leaves to show when they're short of water and a plant that can detect harmful chemicals in groundwater.可知这就包括叶子上印有传感器来显示植物缺水的情况的植物,还有一种植物可以检测到地下水中的有害化学物质。由此可知,麻省理工学院工程师植物叶片上印上传感器的作用是检测植物缺水的情况。故选A

34.细节理解题。根据最后一段中Glowing plants could reduce this distance and therefore help save energy.可知发光的植物可以缩短这段距离,从而帮助节约能源。由此可知,这种发光的植物在未来可能有助于减少能源消耗。故选C

35.主旨大意题。根据最后一段中Lighting accounts for about 7%of the total electricity consumed in the US. Since lighting is often far removed from the power source-such as the distance from a power plant to street lamps on a remote highway-a lot of energy is lost during transmission. Glowing plants could reduce this distance and therefore help save energy.可知照明约占美国总耗电量的7%。由于照明通常远离电源,例如从发电厂到偏僻公路上路灯的距离,在传输过程中会损失大量能源。发光的植物可以缩短这段距离,从而帮助节约能源。结合文章主要说明了绿色植物对人们很有好处,因此麻省理工学院的工程师开发了一种发光植物,文章介绍了他们发明这种植物的过程,以及这种植物的一些优势,指出在未来发光植物有可能取代路灯,达到节约能源的作用。由此可知,C选项发光的植物能取代路灯吗?最符合文章标题。故选C

4.2020·新课标B

Some parents will buy any high-tech toy if they think it will help their child, but researchers said puzzles help children with math-related skills.

Psychologist Susan Levine, an expert on mathematics development in young children the University of Chicago, found children who play with puzzles between ages 2 and 4 later develop better spatial skills. Puzzle play was found to be a significant predictor of cognition(认知) after controlling for differences in parents’ income, education and the amount of parent talk, Levine said.

The researchers analyzed video recordings of 53 child-parent pairs during everyday activities at home and found children who play with puzzles between 26 and 46 months of age have better spatial skills when assessed at 54 months of age.

“The children who played with puzzles performed better than those who did not, on tasks that assessed their ability to rotate(旋转)and translate shapes,” Levine said in a statement.

The parents were asked to interact with their children as they normally would, and about half of children in the study played with puzzles at one time. Higher-income parents tended to have children play with puzzles more frequently, and both boys and girls who played with puzzles had better spatial skills. However, boys tended to play with more complex puzzles than girls, and the parents of boys provided more spatial language and were more active during puzzle play than parents of girls.

The findings were published in the journal Developmental Science.

24. In which aspect do children benefit from puzzle play?

A. Building confidence.                                         B. Developing spatial skills.

C. Learning self-control.                                        D. Gaining high-tech knowledge.

25. What did Levine take into consideration when designing her experiment

A. Parents’ age.                                                    B. Children’s imagination.

C. Parents’ education.                                            D. Child-parent relationship.

26. How do boy differ from girls in puzzle play?

A. They play with puzzles more often.

B. They tend to talk less during the game.

C. They prefer to use more spatial language.

D. They are likely to play with tougher puzzles.

27. What is the text mainly about?

A. A mathematical method.                                    B. A scientific study.

C. A woman psychologist                                       D. A teaching program.

【答案】24. B    25. C    26. D    27. B

【解析】本文是说明文。是关于孩子们玩智力游戏的研究,介绍了研究考虑的因素,研究过程和结果。

24.细节理解题。根据第二段中…found children who play with puzzles between ages 2 and 4 develop better spatial skill(2岁到4岁之间玩智力游戏的儿童在空间能力方面更好)可知,孩子们可以从智力游戏中发展更好的空间技能。B. Developing spatial skills(发展空间能力)符合以上说法,故选B项。

25.细节理解题。根据第二段中Puzzle play was found to be a significant predictor of cognition after controlling for difference in parents' income, education and the amount of parent talk, Levine said.( Levine说,在控制了不同父母的收入、教育和父母谈话次数后,拼图游戏被发现是一个重要的认知预测)可知Levine在设计这个试验时考虑了父母的收入、教育程度和父母谈话的次数。C. Parents' education.(父母的教育)符合以上说法,故选C项。

26.细节理解题。根据倒数第二段中However, boys tended to play with more complex puzzles than girls,可知男孩比女孩更喜欢玩复杂的谜题,即他们可能会玩难度更大的谜题。D. They are likely to play with tougher puzzles.(他们有可能玩更复杂的谜题)符合以上说法,故选D项。

27.主旨大意题。本文是关于孩子们玩智力游戏的研究,介绍了研究考虑的因素,研究过程和结果。所以是关于科学研究的。B. A scientific study(一项科学研究)符合以上说法,故选B项。

5.2020·新课标C

When you were trying to figure out what to buy for the environmentalist on your holiday list, fur probably didn’t cross your mind. But some ecologists and fashion (时装)enthusiasts are trying to bring back the market for fur made from nutria(海狸鼠).

Unusual fashion shows in New Orleans and Brooklyn have(showcased)nutria fur made into clothes in different styles. “It sounds crazy to talk about guilt-free fur-unless you understand that the nutria are destroying vast wetlands every year”, says Cree McCree, project director of Righteous Fur.

Scientists in Louisiana were so concerned that they decided to pay hunters $5 a tail. Some of the fur ends up in the fashion shows like the one in Brooklyn last month.

Nutria were brought there from Argentina by fur farmers and let go into the wild. “The ecosystem down there can’t handle this non-native species(物种).It’s destroying the environment. It’s them or us.” says Michael Massimi, an expert in this field.

The fur trade kept nutria check for decadesbut when the market for nutria collapsed in the late 1980sthe cat-sized animals multiplied like crazy.

Biologist Edmond Mouton runs the nutria control program for Louisiana. He says it’s not easy to convince people that nutria fur is green, but he has no doubt about it. Hunters bring in more than 300,000 nutria tails a year, so part of Mouton’s job these days is trying to promote fur.

Then there’s Righteous Fur and its unusual fashion. Morgan says”To give people a guilt-free option that they can wear without someone throwing paint on them-1 think that’s going to be a massive thing, at least here in New York.” Designer Jennifer Anderson admits it took her a while to come around to the opinion that using nutria fur for her creations is morally acceptable. She trying to come up with a lable to attach to nutria fashions to show it is eco-friendly.

28. What is the purpose of the fashion shows in New Orleans and Brooklyn?

A. To promote guilt-free fur.

B. To expand the fashion market.

C. To introduce a new brand.

D. To celebrate a winter holiday.

29. Why are scientists concerned about nutria?

A. Nutria damage the ecosystem seriously.

B. Nutria are an endangered species.

C. Nutria hurt local cat-sized animals.

D. Nutria are illegally hunted.

30. What does the underlined word “collapsed” in paragraph 5 probably mean?

A. Boomed.                 B. Became mature.              C. Remained stable.            D. Crashed.

31. What can we infer abouf wearing fur in New York according to Morgan?

A. It’s formal.             B. It’s risky.                        C. It’s harmful.                   D. It’s traditional.

【答案】28. A    29. A    30. D    31. B

【解析】本文是说明文。介绍了美国新奥良和布鲁克林举办了不同寻常的时装秀。展出海狸鼠制成的皮衣。海狸鼠们每年都在破坏大片的湿地,因此设计师称这是一种环保的举措,科学家们也对海狸鼠损坏生态平衡表示了担忧。

28.推理判断题。根据第二段Unusual fashion shows in New Orleans and Brooklyn have showcased nutria fur made into clothes in different styles. “It sounds crazy to talk about guilt-free fur-unless you understand that the nutria are destroying vast wetlands every year,”says Cree McCree, project director of Righteous Fur.得知,美国新奥尔良和布鲁克林举办了不同寻常的时装秀,时装秀上展出海狸鼠皮制成的不同风格的衣服,项目总监Cree McCree说:除非了解海狸鼠正每年破坏大片湿地,否则谈论无罪感皮衣是很疯狂的事情,可以判断出由于海狸鼠对生态造成了巨大的破坏,这场海狸鼠皮衣时装秀销售的是无罪恶感皮衣。故选A

29.推理判断题。根据第三段Scientists in Louisiana were so concerned that they decided to pay hunters $5 a tail.得知,科学家们如此担心以至于他们决定按照一条海狸鼠尾巴付给猎人们5美元,可以推断出科学家们担忧海狸鼠们严重破坏生态平衡,。故选A

30.词义猜测题。根据第五段The fur trade kept nutria in check for decades, but when the market for nutria collapsed in the late 1980s,the cat-sized animals multiplied like crazy. 得知,毛皮贸易使海狸鼠受到了几十年的控制,但是当海狸鼠市场在20世纪80年代末崩溃时,这种猫大小的动物数量疯长,根据but判断,这是转折关系,以前由于皮毛交易,海狸鼠处于控制,现在这种海狸鼠之所以能够数量激增,是由于市场不再销售海狸鼠皮毛导致的,可以推断出划线词collapsed 是和D.crashed倒闭的意思最相近。故选D

31.推理判断题。根据第二段Model Paige Morgan says, “To give people a guilt –free option that they can wear without someone throwing paint on them-I think that’s going to be a massive thing, at least in New York. ” 得知,为了给人们一种无罪的选择,人们可以穿皮衣而不被人们泼油漆,我认为在纽约将是一件巨大的事情,根据模特摩根所说得知,在纽约穿皮质衣服是有风险的。故选B

6.2020·新课标D

We are the products of evolution, and not just evolution that occurred billions of years ago. As scientists look deeper into our genes (基因), they are finding examples of human evolution in just the past few thousand years. People in Ethiopian highlands have adapted to living at high altitudes. Cattle -raising people in East Africa and northern Europe have gained a mutation (突变) that helps them digest milk as adults.

On Thursday in an article published in Cell, a team of researchers reported a new kind of adaptation - not to air or to food, but to the ocean. A group of sea-dwelling people in Southeast Asia have evolved into better divers. The Bajau, as these people are known, number in the hundreds of thousands in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. They have traditionally lived on houseboats; in recent times, they’ve also built houses on stilts (支柱) in coastal waters. “They are simply a stranger to the land,” said Redney C. Jubilado, a University of Hawaii researcher who studies the Bajau.

Dr. Jubilado first met the Bajau while growing up on Samal Island in the Philippines. They made a living as divers, spearfishing or harvesting shellfish. “We were so amazed that they could stay underwater much longer than us local islanders,” Dr. Jubilado said. “I could see them actually walking under the sea.”

In201, Melissa Ilardo, then a graduate student in genetics at the University of Copenhagen, heard about the Bajau. She wondered if centuries of diving could have led to the evolution of physical characteristics that made the task easier for them. “it seemed like the perfect chance for natural selection to act on a population,” said Dr. Ilardo. She also said there were likely a number of other genes that help the Bajau dive.

32. What does the author want to tell us by the examples in paragraph 1?

A. Environmental adaptation of cattle raisers.           B. New knowledge of human evolution.

C. Recent findings of human origin.                        D. Significance of food selection.

33. Where do the Bajau build their houses?

A. In valleys.               B. Near rivers.                    C. On the beach.                 D. Off the coast.

34. Why was the young Jubilado astonished at the Bajau?

A. They could walk on stilts all day.                        B. They had a superb way of fishing.

C. They could stay long underwater.                        D. They lived on both land and water.

35. What can be a suitable title for the text?

A. Bodies Remodeled for a Life at Sea                    B. Highlanders’ Survival Skills

C. Basic Methods of Genetic Research                    D. The World’s Best Divers

【答案】32. B    33. D    34. C    35. A

【解析】这是一篇说明文。最近一项对人类基因的研究发现,人类的进化不仅仅发生在数十亿年前,而且最近几千年也有。Bajau人因为靠海为生,他们的身体已经进化成更能适应海洋生活。

32.推理判断题。根据第一段的we are the products of evolution, and not just evolution that occurred billions of years ago. As scientists look deeper into our genes, they are finding examples of human evolution in just the past few thousand years.(我们是进化的产物,而且不仅仅是数十亿年前的产物。当科学家更深入的研究我们的基因时,他们发现了人类在过去几千年进化的例子)可知,作者列举第一段的例子是为了告诉我们关于人类进化的一个新信息,那就是人类在最近几千年也在进化。B. New knowledge of human evolution.(人类进化的新知识)符合以上说法,故选B项。

33.细节理解题。根据第二段的The Bajau, as these people are known, number in hundreds of thousands in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. They have traditionally live on houseboats; in recent times, they've also built houses on stilts in coastal waters.(这些人被称为Bajau,在印度尼西亚、马来西亚和菲律宾有数十万人。他们一直住在船屋上;最近他们也把房子建在沿海水域的吊脚楼上)可知,Bajau把房子建在沿海区域。D. Off the coast.(沿海)符合以上说法,故选D项。

34.细节理解题。根据第三段的we were so amazed that they could stay underwater much longer than us local islanders.(我们很惊讶,他们在水下待的时间比我们当地的岛民要长的多)可知,让Jubilado感到吃惊的是Bajau人能在水下待更长的时间。C. They could stay long underwater. (他们能在水下待很长时间)符合以上说法,故选C项。

35.主旨大意题。根据文章的主要内容,尤其是第二段的On Thursday in an article published in Cell, a team of researchers reported a new kind of adaption-not to air or to food, but to the ocean.(周四,在《细胞》杂志上发表的一篇文章中,一群研究人员报道了一种新的适应——不是空气也不是食物,而是海洋)可知,本文主要讲述了一种新的进化,即长期生活在海边,靠海为生的生活方式,让Bajau人的身体进化成更适应海洋生活。A. Bodies Remodeled for a Life at Sea.(身体为适应海洋生活而重塑)可以作为本文标题,故选A项。

7.2020·江苏卷B

Sometimes it’s hard to let go. For many British people, that can apply to institutions and objects that represent their country’s past-age-old castles, splendid homes… and red phone boxes.

Beaten first by the march of technology and lately by the terrible weather in junkyards (废品场), the phone boxes representative of an age are now making something of a comeback. Adapted in imaginative ways, many have reappeared on city streets and village greens housing tiny cafes, cellphone repair shops or even defibrillator machines (除颤器).

The original iron boxes with the round roofs first appeared in 1926. They were designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of the Battersea Power Station in London. After becoming an important part of many British streets, the phone boxes began disappearing in the 1980s, with the rise of the mobile phone sending most of them away to the junkyards.

About that time, Tony Inglis’ engineering and transport company got the job to remove phone boxes from the streets and sell them out. But Inglis ended up buying hundreds of them himself, with the idea of repairing and selling them. He said that he had heard the calls to preserve the boxes and had seen how some of them were listed as historic buildings.

As Inglis and, later other businessmen, got to work, repurposed phone boxes began reappearing in cities and villages as people found new uses for them. Today, they are once again a familiar sight, playing roles that are often just as important for the community as their original purpose.

In rural areas, where ambulances can take a relatively long time to arrive, the phone boxes have taken on a lifesaving role. Local organizations can adopt them for l pound, and install defibrillators to help in emergencies.

Others also looked at the phone boxes and saw business opportunities. LoveFone, a company that advocates repairing cellphones rather than abandoning them, opened a mini workshop in a London phone box in 2016.

The tiny shops made economic sense, according to Robert Kerr, a founder of LoveFone. He said that one of the boxes generated around $13,500 in revenue a month and cost only about $400 to rent.

Inglis said phone boxes called to mind an age when things were built to last. I “like what they are to people, and I enjoy bringing things back,” he said.

58. The phone boxes are making a comeback ______.

A. to form a beautiful sight of the city

B. to improve telecommunications services

C. to remind people of a historical period

D. to meet the requirement of green economy

59. Why did the phone boxes begin to go out of service in the 1980s?

A. They were not well-designed.                             B. They provided bad services.

C. They had too short a history.                              D. They lost to new technologies.

60. The phone boxes are becoming popular mainly because of ______.

A. their new appearance and lower prices                B. the push of the local organizations

C. their changed roles and functions                        D. the big funding of the businessmen

【答案】58. C    59. D    60. C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章讲述了在英国,电话亭在20世纪80年代开始停止使用。后来,一些商人使电话亭的角色和功能发生了变化,电话亭又变得流行起来。

58.细节理解题。根据第一段Sometimes it’s hard to let go. For many British people, that can apply to institutions and objects that represent their country’s past-age-old castles, splendid homes.. and red phone boxes.(有时候真的很难放手。对许多英国人来说,这可以适用于代表他们国家过去历史的机构和物品--古老的城堡、辉煌的住宅……还有红色的电话亭)和最后一段Inglis said phone boxes called to mind an age when things were built to last.(英格利斯说,电话亭让人想起了一个东西经久耐用的时代)可知,电话亭正在卷土重来,以提醒人们一个历史时期。故选C

59.细节理解题。根据第三段After becoming an important part of many British streets, the phone boxes began disappearing in the 1980s, with the rise of the mobile phone sending most of them away to the junkyards.(在成为英国许多街道的重要组成部分后,电话亭在20世纪80年代开始消失,随着移动电话的兴起,大部分电话亭被扔到了垃圾场)可知,电话亭在20世纪80年代开始停止使用是因为它们输给了新技术。故选D

60.推理判断题。根据第五段As Inglis and, later other businessmen, got to work, repurposed phone boxes began reappearing in cities and villages as people found new uses for them. Today, they are once again a familiar sight, playing roles that are often just as important for the community as their original purpose.(随着英格利斯和后来的其他商人开始工作,改装后的电话亭开始在城市和乡村重新出现,人们发现了它们的新用途。今天,它们再次成为人们熟悉的景象,扮演着与它们最初的目的同样重要的角色)和第六段In rural areas, where ambulances can take a relatively long time to arrive, the phone boxes have taken on a lifesaving role.(在农村地区,救护车要花相当长的时间才能到达,电话亭就起到了拯救生命的作用)以及第七段Others also looked at the phone boxes and saw business opportunities.(其他人也在电话亭寻找商机)可推断出,电话亭之所以变得流行,主要是因为它们的角色和功能发生了变化。故选C

8.2020·江苏卷C

For those who can stomach it, working out before breakfast may be more beneficial for health than eating first, according to a study of meal timing and physical activity.

Athletes and scientists have long known that meal timing affects performance. However far less has been known about how meal timing and exercise might affect general health.

To find out, British scientists conducted a study. They first found 10 overweight and inactive but otherwise healthy young men, whose lifestyles are, for better and worse, representative of those of most of us. They tested the men’s fitness and resting metabolic (新陈代谢的) rates and took samples (样品) of their blood and fat tissue.

Then, on two separate morning visits to the scientists’ lab, each man walked for an hour at an average speed that, in theory should allow his body to rely mainly on fat for fuel. Before one of these workouts, the men skipped breakfast, meaning that they exercised on a completely empty stomach after a long overnight fast (禁食). On the other occasion, they ate a rich morning meal about two hours before they started walking.

Just before and an hour after each workout, the scientists took additional samples of the men’s blood and fat tissue.

Then they compared the samples. There were considerable differences. Most obviously, the men displayed lower blood sugar levels at the start of their workouts when they had skipped breakfast than when they had eaten. As a result, they burned more fat during walks on an empty stomach than when they had eaten first. On the other hand, they burned slightly more calories (卡路里), on average, during the workout after breakfast than after fasting.

But it was the effects deep within the fat cells that may have been the most significant, the researchers found. Multiple genes behaved differently, depending on whether someone had eaten or not before walking. Many of these genes produce proteins (蛋白质) that can improve blood sugar regulation and insulin (胰岛素) levels throughout the body and so are associated with improved metabolic health. These genes were much more active when the men had fasted before exercise than when they had breakfasted.

The implication of these results is that to gain the greatest health benefits from exercise, it may be wise to skip eating first.

61. The underlined expression “stomach it” in Paragraph 1 most probably means “______”.

A. digest the meal easily                                        B. manage without breakfast

C. decide wisely what to eat                                   D. eat whatever is offered

62. Why were the 10 people chosen for the experiment?

A. Their lifestyles were typical of ordinary people.

B. Their lack of exercise led to overweight.

C. They could walk at an average speed.

D. They had slow metabolic rates.

63. What happened to those who ate breakfast before exercise?

A. They successfully lost weight.                           

B. They consumed a bit more calories.

C. They burned more fat on average.                      

D. They displayed higher insulin levels.

64. What could be learned from the research?

A. A workout after breakfast improves gene performances.

B. Too much workout often slows metabolic rates.

C. Lifestyle is not as important as morning exercise.

D. Physical exercise before breakfast is better for health.

【答案】61. B    62. A    63. B    64. D

【解析】本文是说明文。文章介绍了一项研究,结果表明对于那些能忍受的人来说,不吃早餐锻炼可能对健康更有益。

61.词句猜测题。根据下文working out before breakfast may be more beneficial for health than eating first可知,早餐前锻炼可能比先吃饭再锻炼对健康更有益,因此推断这里说的是那些不吃早饭先锻炼的人,因此推断划线词与B不吃早饭能应付意思相近。故选B

62.细节理解题。根据第三段的They first found 10 overweight and inactive but otherwise healthy young men, whose lifestyles are far better and worse, representative of those of most of us.可知,他们首先找到了10个超重的,不活跃但健康的年轻人,他们的生活方式可以说更好,也可以说更糟,代表了我们大多数人。因此可知,实验时选择的10个人的生活方式代表了普通人。故选A

63.细节理解题。根据第六段的As a result, they burned more fat during walks on an empty stomach than when they had eaten first. On the other hand. they burned slightly more calories(卡路里), on average, during the workout after breakfast than after fasting.可知,结果,他们空腹散步时燃烧的脂肪比他们首先吃东西时所燃烧的脂肪要多。另一方面。平均而言,他们在早餐后锻炼时燃烧的卡路里略多于禁食后。因此可知,锻炼前吃早饭消耗更多一点的热量。故选B

64.推理判断题。根据最后一段The implication of these results is that to gain the greatest health benefits from exercise, it may be wise to skip eating first.可知,这些结果的暗示,为了从运动中获得最大的健康益处,先不吃东西可能更明智。因此推断早饭前的体育锻炼对健康更有益。故选D

9.2020·山东卷D

According to a recent study in the Journal of Consumer Research, both the size and consumption habits of our eating companions can influence our food intake. And contrary to existing research that says you should avoid eating with heavier people who order large portions(), it's the beanpoles with big appetites you really need to avoid.

To test the effect of social influence on eating habits the researchers conducted two experiments. In the first, 95 undergraduate women were individually invited into a lab to ostensibly(表面上)participate in a study about movie viewership. Before the film began, each woman was asked to help herself to a snack. An actor hired by the researchers grabbed her food first. In her natural state, the actor weighed 105 pounds. But in half the cases she wore a specially designed fat suit which increased her weight to 180 pounds.

Both the fat and thin versions of the actor took a large amount of food. The participants followed suit, taking more food than they normally would have. However, they took significantly more when the actor was thin.

For the second test, in one case the thin actor took two pieces of candy from the snack bowls. In the other case, she took 30 pieces. The results were similar to the first test: the participants followed suit but took significantly more candy when the thin actor took 30 pieces.

The tests show that the social environment is extremely influential when we're making decisions. If this fellow participant is going to eat more, so will I. Call it the “I’ll have what she's having” effect. However, we'll adjust the influence. If an overweight person is having a large portion, I'll hold back a bit because I see the results of his eating habits. But if a thin person eats a lot, I'll follow suit. If he can eat much and keep slim, why can't I?

12. What is the recent study mainly about?

A. Food safety.                                                     B. Movie viewership.

C. Consumer demand.                                           D. Eating behavior.

13. What does the underlined word “beanpoles” in paragraph 1 refer to?

A. Big eaters.                                                       B. Overweight persons.

C. Picky eaters.                                                    D. Tall thin persons.

14. Why did the researchers hire the actor?

A. To see how she would affect the participants.

B. To test if the participants could recognize her.

C. To find out what she would do in the two tests.

D. To study why she could keep her weight down.

15. On what basis do we “adjust the influence” according to the last paragraph?

A. How hungry we are.                                         B. How slim we want to be.

C. How we perceive others.                                   D. How we feel about the food.

【答案】12. D    13. D    14. A    15. C

【解析】本文是说明文。最近的研究表明:我们的饮食伙伴的大小和消费习惯都会影响我们的食物摄入量。文章详述了这个实验的过程。

12.细节理解题。根据第一段中的“According to a recent study in the Journal of Consumer Research, both the size and consumption habits of our eating companions can influence our food intake”可知,根据消费者研究杂志最近的一项研究,我们的饮食伙伴的大小和消费习惯都会影响我们的食物摄入量。因此这项研究是关于饮食行为的。故选D

13.词义猜测题。根据前半句“And contrary to existing research that says you should avoid eating with heavier people who order large portions(份)可知,现有的研究认为:你应该避免和体重较重、点大份饭菜的人一起吃饭。后半句认为,你真正应该避免的是the beanpoles with big appetites。由contrary to可推断出,画线词和heavier people(超重的人)相反,结合选项,D选项(瘦瘦高高的人)正好和heavier people正好相反。故选D

14.推理判断题。根据第二段的“To test the effect of social influence on eating habits, the researchers conducted two experiments”可知,为了测试社会影响对饮食习惯的影响,研究人员进行了两个实验。根据倒数第三段的内容可知,在两个实验中,胖的和瘦的演员都吃了大量的食物。参与者也照做,吃的食物比平常多。然而,当演员是瘦的时候,参与者们服用的食物更多。由此推断,研究人员雇用演员是为了看看她如何影响参与者。故选A

15.推理判断题。根据最后一段中的“If an overweight person is having a large portion, I’ll hold back a bit because I see the results of his eating habits. But if a thin person eats a lot, I’ll follow suit. If he can eat much and keep slim, why can’t I? ”可知,如果一个超重的人吃很大一份,我会忍住一点,因为我看到了他饮食习惯的结果。但如果一个瘦的人吃很多,我会跟着做。如果他吃得多保持苗条,为什么我不能呢?因此推断我们是根据我们对他人的看法(即:如何看待他人)来调整影响的。故选C

10.2020·天津卷A

How to Use a Modern Public Library

Has it been a while since your last visit to a public library? If so, you may be surprised to learn that libraries have changed for the better. It’s been years since they were dusty little rooms with books. They have transformed themselves into places where you can develop your love of knowledge meet interesting people, or find out how to start a business.

Check out a book. While libraries still loan out(出借)books, you’ll find it easier to get a copy of whatever you’re looking for, thanks to a cooperative network of area libraries. Via such networks, libraries share their books with each other through the use of delivery vehicles. Once the book you’ve requested is delivered to the nearest branch, they will inform you by e-mail, so you can pick it up.

Check out other items. The library is now a multimedia zone, loaded with information in many formats(载体形式). You can borrow movies on DVDs, music on CDs, and popular magazines. Some libraries even loan out toys and games. If a popular magazine you want isn’t offered and the library keeps a list of such requests, they may bring it in when enough interest is shown.

Join targeted reading groups. Libraries will often hold reading-group sessions targeted to various age groups. Perhaps you’d like to learn a language or improve your English. The library may sponsor a language group you could join. If you have difficulties reading, ask about special reading opportunities. Your library might be able to accommodate you. And you might find it relaxing to bring your small kid to a half-hour Story Time while you sit quietly in a corner with a good book.

Start a business using the help of your local library. If you want to have a business of your own, your local library can become a launch space for it. In library books and computers, you can find information on starting a business. Many libraries will help you with locally supplied information about business management shared through chambers of commerce(商会)and government agencies, and they will offer printing, faxing and database services you need.

36. Public libraries connected by a cooperative network benefit readers by______.

A. sharing their books on the Internet

B. giving access to online reading at a library branch

C. sending a needed book to a library branch nearby

D. making the checkout procedures diverse

37. According to Paragraph 3, what items may be checked out from a public library?

A. A magazine and an e-book.

B. A game and an oil painting.

C. A music CD and a kid’s toy.

D. A DVD and a video player

38. As is described in Paragraph 4, taking a small kid to a half-hour Story Time allows ______.

A. the kid to learn a new language

B. the parent to enjoy quiet reading

C. the kid to overcome reading difficulties

D. the parent to meet their program sponsor

39. Your local library can help you start a business by ______.

A. providing relevant information and supporting services

B. offering professional advice on business management

C. supplying useful information of your potential buyers

D. arranging meetings with government officials

40. What is the purpose of the passage?

A. To point out the importance of public libraries.

B. To encourage people to work in public libraries.

C. To introduce the improved services of public libraries.

D. To call for the modernization of public library systems.

【答案】36. C    37. C    38. B    39. A    40. C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了如何使用改造升级后现代公共图书馆。

36.细节理解题。根据文章Check out a book“Via such networks, libraries share their books with each other through the use of delivery vehicles. Once the book you've requested is delivered to the nearest branch, they will inform you by e-mail, so you can pick it up.( 通过这样网络,图书馆通过运载车辆的使用彼此分享图书。一旦你要的书送到最近的书店,他们会通过电子邮件通知你,你就可以去取了。)”可知,合作网络连接的公共图书馆通过向附近的图书馆分支机构发送所需的书籍,使读者受益。故选C项。

37.细节理解题。根据文章第三段“You can borrow movies on DVDs, music on CDs, and popular magazines. Some libraries even loan out toys and games. ( 你可以借DVD电影、CD音乐和流行杂志。一些图书馆甚至借出玩具和游戏。)”可知,从公共图书馆可以外借DVD电影、CD音乐、流行杂志、玩具和游戏等物品。故选C项。

38.细节理解题。根据文章第四段“And you might find it relaxing to bring your small kid to a half-hour Story Time while you sit quietly in a corner with a good book. (你可能会发现带着你的孩子去半个小时的故事时间是一种放松,那时你安静地坐在角落里看一本好书,)”可知,带孩子去半小时的故事时间,可以让父母享受安静的阅读。故选B项。

39.细节理解题。根据文章最后一段“Many libraries will help you with locally supplied information about business management shared through chambers of commerce(商会)and government agencies, and they will offer printing and database services you need. (许多图书馆会通过商会和政府机构分享本地提供的商业管理信息,并提供你需要的打印和数据库服务。)”可知,你当地的图书馆可以通过提供相关信息和支持服务来帮助你创业。故选A项。

40.推理判断题。根据文章标题How to Use a Modern Public Library(如何使用一个现代公共图书馆)和第一段中的“you may be surprised to learn that libraries have changed for the better. They have transformed themselves into places where you can develop your love of knowledge meet interesting people, or find out how to start a business.(你可能会惊讶地发现图书馆已经变得更好了。他们已经把自己变成了一个地方,在那里你可以发展你对知识的热爱,遇见有趣的人,或者发现如何创业)。再结合几个小标题:Check out a book(借一本书); Check out other items(借其他物品);Join targeted reading groups(加入有针对性的阅读小组);Start a business using the help of your local library(在当地图书馆的帮助下创业)可知,本文主要介绍了在经过改善后的图书馆里,人们可以做些什么,即:经过改善后的图书馆可以给人们提供什么服务。故选C

11.2020·天津卷C

For people, who are interested in sound, the field of sound technology is definitely making noise. In the past, sound engineers worked in the back rooms of recording studios, but many of today’s sound professionals are sharing their knowledge and experience with professionals in other fields to create new products based on the phenomenon we call sound.

Sound can be used as a weapon. Imagine that a police officer is chasing a thief. The thief tries to escape. And the officer can’t let him get away. He pulls out a special device, points it at the suspect, and switches it on. The thief drops to the ground. This new weapon is called a Long Range Acoustic Device(LRAD, 远程定向声波发射器). It produces a deafening sound so painful that it temporarily disables a person. The noise from the LRAD is directed like a ray of light and travels only into the ears of that person, but it is not deadly.

For those who hunger for some peace and quiet, sound can now create silence. Let’s say you are at the airport, and the little boy on the seat next to you is humming(哼唱) a short commercial song. He hums it over and over again, and you are about to go crazy. Thanks to the Silence Machine, a British invention, you can get rid of the sound without upsetting the boy or his parents. One may wonder how the Silence Machine works. Well, it functions by analyzing the waves of the incoming sound and creating a second set of outgoing waves. The two sets of waves cancel each other out. Simply turn the machine or point it at the target, and your peace and quiet comes back.

Directed sound is a new technology that allows companies to use sound in much the same way spotlights(聚光灯) are used in the theater. A spotlight lights up only one section of a stage; similarly, “spotsound” creates a circle of sound in on targeted area. This can be useful for businesses such as restaurants and stores because it offers a new way to attract customers. Restaurants can offer a choice of music along with the various food choices on the menu, allowing customers more control over the atmosphere in which they are dining. Directed sound is also beginning to appear in shopping centers and even at homes.

46. What could be inferred from Paragraph 2 about the effect of the LRAD?

A. It causes temporary hearing loss.

B. It slows down a running man.

C. It makes it easy to identify a suspect.

D. It keeps the suspect from hurting others.

47. The Silence Machine is a device specially designed to ________.

A. silence the people around you

B. remove the sound of commercials

C. block the incoming sound waves

D. stop unwanted sound from affecting you

48. What feature do spotsounds and spotlights share?

A. They travel in circles.

B. They clear the atmosphere.

C. They can be transformed into energy.

D. They can be directed onto a specific area.

49. Directed sound can be used for ________.

A. creative designs of restaurant menus

B. ideal sound effects on the theater stage

C. different choices of music for businesses

D. strict control over any suspicious customer

50. What does the passage focus on?

A. How professionals invented sound products.

B. Inventions in the field of sound technology.

C. The growing interest in the study of sound.

D. How sound engineers work in their studios.

【答案】46. A    47. D    48. D    49. C    50. B

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了一些声音技术领域的发明创造,包括声音可以用作武器的远程声学设备、用来阻止有害声音影响你的静音机以及定向音响技术。

46.推理判断题。根据第二段中的“It produces a deafening sound so painful that it temporarily disables a person. The noise from the LRAD is directed like a ray of light and travels only into the ears of that person, but it is not deadly.”可知它发出震耳欲聋的声音,这种声音令人如此痛苦以至于它会使人暂时丧失能力。LRAD发出的噪音像光线一样被引导,只进入那个人的耳朵,但不会致命。由此可推知,LRAD会导致暂时性听力损失。故选A

47.细节理解题。根据第三段中的“Well, it functions by analyzing the waves of the incoming sound and creating a second set of outgoing waves. The two sets of waves cancel each other out. Simply turn the machine on point it at the target, and your peace and quiet comes back.”可知,它的功能是通过分析传入声音的波,并产生第二组传出的波。这两组波会相互抵消。只要打开机器对准目标,你的宁静就会回来。由此可知,静音机是一种专门设计用来阻止有害声音影响你的设备。故选D

48.细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“A spotlight lights up only one section of a stage; similarly, a “spotsound” creates a circle of sound in one targeted area.”可知,聚光灯只能照亮舞台的一个部分;类似地,一个“spotsound”在一个目标区域创建一个声音圈。由此可知,spotsounds和聚光灯的共同特性是它们可以被定向到一个特定的区域,故选D

49.细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“A spotlight lights up only one section of a stage; similarly,”spotsound” creates a circle of sound in on targeted area. This can be useful for businesses such as restaurants and stores because it offers a new way to attract customers. Restaurants can offer a choice of music along with the various food choice on the menu, allowing customers more control over the atmosphere in which they are dining.”可知,聚光灯只能照亮舞台的一个部分;类似地,一个”spotsound”在一个目标区域创建一个声音圈。这对餐馆和商店等企业很有用,因为它提供了一种吸引顾客的新方式。餐厅可以提供音乐选择与菜单上的各种食物选择,让顾客更多地控制气氛,在他们用餐。由此可知,定向音响可以用于不同的商业音乐选择。故选C

50.主旨大意题。根据第一段中的“In the past, sound engineers worked in the back rooms of recording studios, but many of today's sound professionals are sharing their knowledge and experience with professionals in other fields to create new products based on the phenomenon we call sound.”可知,在过去,音响工程师在录音室的后室工作,但今天的许多音响专业人士正在与其他领域的专业人士分享他们的知识和经验,以我们所谓的声音现象为基础创造新产品。结合下文具体内容可知,本文着重论述了声音技术领域的发明创造。故选B

12.2020·浙江卷A

I am an active playgoer and play-reader, and perhaps my best reason for editing this book is a hope of sharing my enthusiasm for the theater with others. To do this I have searched through dozens of plays to find the ones that I think best show the power and purpose of the short play.

Each play has a theme or central idea which the playwright(剧作家) hopes to get across through dialogue and action. A few characters are used to create a single impression growing out of the theme. It is not my intention to point out the central theme of each of the plays in this collection, for that would, indeed, ruin the pleasure of reading, discussing, and thinking about the plays and the effectiveness of the playwright. However, a variety of types is represented here. These include comedy, satire, poignant drama, historical and regional drama. To show the versatility(多面性) of the short play, I have included a guidance play, a radio play and a television play.

Among the writers of the plays in this collection, Paul Green, Susan Glaspell, Maxwell Anderson, Thornton Wilder, William Saroyan, and Tennessee Williams have all received Pulitzer Prizes for their contributions to the theater. More information about the playwrights will be found at the end of this book.

To get the most out of reading these plays, try to picture the play on stage, with you, the reader, in the audience. The houselights dim(变暗). The curtains are about to open, and in a few minutes the action and dialogue will tell you the story.

21. What do we know about the author from the first paragraph?

A. He has written dozens of plays.                          B. He has a deep love for the theater.

C. He is a professional stage actor.                          D. He likes reading short plays to others.

22. What does the author avoid doing in his work?

A. Stating the plays’ central ideas.                           B. Selecting works by famous playwrights.

C Including various types of plays.                        D. Offering information on the playwrights.

23. What does the author suggest readers do while reading the plays?

A. Control their feelings.                                       B. Apply their acting skills.

C. Use their imagination.                                       D. Keep their audience in mind.

24. What is this text?

A. A short story.                                                   B. An introduction to a book.

C A play review.                                                 D. An advertisement for a theater.

【答案】21. B    22. A    23. C    24. B

【解析】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了作者的书籍的序言部分,包括其编写目的,书籍内容主体,以及如何实现有乐趣的阅读本书的建议。

21.细节理解题。根据文章第一段内容“…and perhaps my best reason for editing this book is a hope of sharing my enthusiasm for the theater with others”可知,作者编辑这本书的最好的原因是希望与他人分享对戏剧的热情,因此可知作者对于戏剧饱含热情。故选B项。

22.细节理解题。根据文章第二段内容“It is not my intention to point out the central theme of each of the plays in this collection, for that would, indeed, ruin the pleasure of reading, discussing, and thinking about the plays and the effectiveness of the playwright.”可知,作者并不想指出这本书中每一部戏剧的中心主题,因为那样确实会破坏阅读、讨论和思考戏剧以及剧作家的有效性的乐趣。A“Stating the plays”central ideas(陈述戏剧的中心思想)”与原文表达信息一致。故选A项。

23.细节理解题。根据文章末尾段内容“To get the most out of the reading these plays, try to picture the play on stage, with you, the reader, in the audience.”可知,作者建议读者试着想象戏剧在舞台上上演,不再是读者而是成为观众,才能实现最佳的阅读乐趣。C“Use their imagination”与原文“try to picture the play on the stage”表达信息一致。故选C项。

24.推理判断题。根据文章首段内容“I am an active playgoer and play-reader, and perhaps my best reason for editing this book is a hope of sharing my enthusiasm for the theater with others”可知,该句内容应是书籍的自序内容,且结合末尾“To get the most out of the reading these plays, try to picture the play on stage, with you, the reader, in the audience.”可知,在讲述如何更好地实现阅读乐趣,再结合全文内容可推知,作者通过该文章介绍自己的一本书。故选B项。

13.2020·浙江卷B

The traffic signals along Factoria Boulevard in Bellevue, Washington, generally don't flash the same length of green twice in a row, especially at rush hour. At 9:30am, the full red/yellow/green signal cycle might be 140 seconds. By 9:33am, a burst of additional traffic might push it to 145 seconds. Less traffic at 9:37am could push it down to 135. Just like the traffic itself, the timing of the signals changes.

That is by design. Bellevue, a fast-growing city just east of Seattle, uses a system that is gaining popularity around the US: intersection(十字路口) signals that can adjust in real time to traffic conditions. These lights, known as adaptive signals, have led to significant declines in both the trouble and cost of travels between work and home.

“Adaptive signals can make sure that the traffic demand that is there is being addressed, ” says Alex Stevanovic, a researcher at Florida Atlantic University.

For all of Bellevue’s success, adaptive signals are not a cure-all for jammed roadways. Kevin Balke, a research engineer at the Texas A&M University Transportation Institute, says that while smart lights can be particularly beneficial for some cities, others are so jammed that only a sharp reduction in the number of cars on the road will make a meaningful difference. “It’s not going to fix everything, but adaptive signals have some benefits for smaller cities,” he says.

In Bellevue, the switch to adaptive signals has been a lesson in the value of welcoming new approaches. In the past, there was often an automatic reaction to increased traffic: just widen the roads, says Mark Poch, the Bellevue Transportation Department’s traffic engineering manager. Now he hopes that other cities will consider making their streets run smarter instead of just making them bigger.

25. What does the underlined word “that” in paragraph 2 refer to?

A. Increased length of green lights.                         B. Shortened traffic signal cycle.

C. Flexible timing of traffic signals.                        D. Smooth traffic flow on the road.

26. What does Kevin Balke say about adaptive signals?

A. They work better on broad roads.

B. They should be used in other cities.

C. They have greatly reduced traffic on the road.

D. They are less helpful in cities seriously jammed.

27. What can we learn from Bellevue’s success?

A. It is rewarding to try new things.                        B. The old methods still work today.

C. I pays to put theory into practice.                        D. The simplest way is the best way.

【答案】25. C    26. D    27. A

【解析】这是一篇说明文。美国华盛顿州的Bellevue采用了能随交通状况而调节交通灯时间的适应性信号灯,大大缓解了交通压力,也表明人们对于交通阻塞问题不再只是拓宽道路,而是能够采用新方法。

25.指代猜测题。That位于第二段句首,应是指代第一段的内容。根据第一段内容尤其是第一段最后一句“Just like the traffic itself, the timing of the signals changes.(就像交通本身一样,信号灯的时间也会变化)”可知,第一段主要讲述的是信号灯的时间会灵活变化;“That is by design.”意为那是有意为之,由此可推知,That指代第一段中信号灯的灵活时间。故选C项。

26.推理判断题。根据第四段第一句中“adaptive signals are not a cure-all for jammed roadways(但自适应信号并不是解决拥堵道路的万能药)”及第二句中“others are so jammed that only a sharp reduction in the number of cars on the road will make a meaningful difference(其他城市交通堵塞如此严重,只有减少道路上的车辆才能起有意义的作用) ”可推知,Kevin Balke认为适应性信号灯对于交通堵塞很严重的城市没有太大帮助。故选D项。

27.推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句“These lights, known as adaptive signals, have led to significant declines in both the trouble and cost of travels between work and home.(这些灯,被称为适应性信号灯,已经大大减少了通勤的麻烦和花费)”最后一段第一句“In Bellevue, the switch to adaptive signals has been a lesson in the value of welcoming new approaches.(Bellevue,对适应性信号灯的转变是一个在欢迎新方法的价值方面的榜样)”可推知,从Bellevue的成功中可以得出,尝试新事物是值得的。故选A项。

14.2020·浙江卷C

Challenging work that requires lots of analytical thinking, planning and other managerial skills might help your brain stay sharp as you age, a study published Wednesday in the journal Neurology suggests.

Researchers from the University of Leipzig in Germany gathered more than 1, 000 retired workers who were over age 75 and assessed the volunteers’ memory and thinking skills through a battery of tests. Then, for eight years, the scientists asked the same group to come back to the lab every 18 months to take the same sorts of tests.

Those who had held mentally stimulating(刺激), demanding jobs before retirement tended to do the best on the tests. And they tended to lose cognitive(认知) function at a much slower rate than those with the least mentally challenging jobs. The results held true even after the scientists accounted for the participants’ overall health status.

“This works just like physical exercise, ” says Francisca Then, who led the study. “After a long run, you may feel like you’re in pain, you may feel tired. But it makes you fit. After a long day at work-sure, you will feel tired, but it can help your brain stay healthy. ”

It's not just corporate jobs, or even paid work that can help keep your brain fit, Then points out. A waiter’s job, for example, that requires multitasking, teamwork and decision-making could be just as stimulating as any high-level office work. And “running a family household requires high-level planning and coordinating(协调), ” she says. “You have to organize the activities of the children and take care of the bills and groceries. ”

Of course, our brains can decline as we grow older for lots of reasons-including other environmental influences or genetic factors. Still, continuing to challenge yourself mentally and keeping your mind busy can only help.

28. Why did the scientists ask the volunteers to take the tests?

A. To assess their health status.                               B. To evaluate their work habits.

C. To analyze their personality.                               D. To measure their mental ability.

29. How does Francisca Then explain her findings in paragraph 4?

A. By using an expert’s words.                               B. By making a comparison.

C. By referring to another study.                             D. By introducing a concept.

30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?

A. Retired Workers Can Pick Up New Skills

B. Old People Should Take Challenging Jobs

C. Your Tough Job Might Help Keep You Sharp

D. Cognitive Function May Decline As You Age

【答案】28. D    29. B    30. C

【解析】这是一篇说明文。《神经病学》杂志发布的一则研究显示,需要大量的分析思考、细致规划和其他管理技能有挑战性的工作,有可能会帮助你的大脑随着年龄的增长而保持敏锐。

28.细节理解题。根据第二段第一句“Researchers from the University of Leipzig in Germany gathered more than 1,000 retired workers who were over age 75 and assessed the volunteers’ memory and thinking skills through a battery of tests.(来自德国莱比锡大学的研究人员召集了1000多名75岁以上的退休老人,并通过一系列的测试对他们的记忆力和思维能力进行了评估。)”可知,科学家让志愿者做测试是为了测试他们的心智能力。故选D项。

29.推理判断题。根据第四段中Francisca Then说的话“This works just like physical exercise,( 这就像体育锻炼一样有效。)”及接下来进一步的解释长跑后人就会感到痛苦和疲惫,但它确实能强身健体。工作一天下来会感到劳累,但这也使你的大脑处于健康状态可知,Francisca Then是通过与身体锻炼作比较来解释他的发现的。故选B项。

30.主旨大意题。第一段“Challenging work that requires lots of analytical thinking, planning and other managerial skills might help your brain stay sharp as you age(需要大量的分析思考、细致规划和其他管理技能有挑战性的工作,有可能会帮助你的大脑随着年龄的增长而保持敏锐。)”是本文的主题句,结合全文内容可知,文章主要讲述了有挑战性的工作可能会使大脑保持敏捷,所以C困难的工作可能有助于大脑保持敏捷适合作本文标题。故选C项。