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2020英语备课资料:高考英语真题分项详解 专题01阅读理解之说明文2018

录入者:lgr  人气指数: 次  发布时间:2020年10月16日

专题01阅读理解之说明文2018年】

1.2018·全国卷ID

We may think we’re a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices (装置) well after they go out of style. That’s bad news for the environment – and our wallets – as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things.

To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life – from when its minerals are mined to when we stop using the device. This method provided a readout for how home energy use has evolved since the early 1990s. Devices were grouped by generation. Desktop computers, basic mobile phones, and box-set TVs defined 1992. Digital cameras arrived on the scene in 1997. And MP3 players, smartphones, and LCD TVs entered homes in 2002, before tablets and e-readers showed up in 2007.

As we accumulated more devices, however, we didn’t throw out our old ones. “The living-room television is replaced and gets planted in the kids’ room, and suddenly one day, you have a TV in every room of the house,” said one researcher. The average number of electronic devices rose from four per household in 1992 to 13 in 2007. We’re not just keeping these old devices – we continue to use them. According to the analysis of Babbitt’s team, old desktop monitors and box TVs with cathode ray tubes are the worst devices with their energy consumption and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions (排放) more than doubling during the 1992 to 2007 window.

So what’s the solution (解决方案)? The team’s data only went up to 2007, but the researchers also explored what would happen if consumers replaced old products with new electronics that serve more than one function, such as a tablet for word processing and TV viewing. They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%.

32. What does the author think of new devices?

A. They are environment-friendly.               B. They are no better than the old.

C. They cost more to use at home.               D. They go out of style quickly.

33. Why did Babbitt’s team conduct the research?

A. To reduce the cost of minerals.              

B. To test the life cycle of a product.

C. To update consumers on new technology.

D. To find out electricity consumption of the devices.

34. Which of the following uses the least energy?

A. The box-set TV.                                     B. The tablet.           

C. The LCD TV.                                        D. The desktop computer.

35. What does the text suggest people do about old electronic devices?

A. Stop using them.                                    B. Take them apart.

C. Upgrade them.                                       D. Recycle them.

【文章大意】本文是一篇科普说明文。文章讲述了新旧电子设备的差别,旧电子设备耗能高、不环保。所以作者主张使用新电子设备。

32.A 【解析】观点态度题。根据文章第一段中的That’s bad news for the environment – and our wallets – as these outdated devices consume much more energy than the newer ones that do the same things.可知,使用旧的电子设备对环境和我们的钱包都是坏消息。这些过时的设备做相同的事情要消耗比新设备更多的能量。由此推知作者认为新电子设备环保、节能。故选A

33.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第二段中的To figure out how much power these devices are using, Callie Babbitt and her colleagues at the Rochester Institute of Technology in New York tracked the environmental costs for each product throughout its life      可知,Babbitt’s team研究的目的是弄清楚这些设备用了多少电。故选D

34.B  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一段中的They found that more on-demand entertainment viewing on tablets instead of TVs and desktop computers could cut energy consumption by 44%.可知,平板电脑是耗能最少的电子设备,可以降低44%的耗能。故选B

35.A 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章的整体内容可知,因为旧的电子设备耗能高,不环保。所以作者建议停止使用旧的电子设备。故选A

2.2018·全国卷IIB

Many of us love July because it’s the month when nature’s berries and stone fruits are in abundance. These colourful and sweet jewels form British Columbia’s fields are little powerhouses of nutritional protection.

Of the common berries, strawberries are highest in vitamin C, although, because of their seeds, raspberries contain a little more protein (蛋白质), iron and zinc (not that fruits have much protein). Blueberries are particularly high in antioxidants (抗氧化物质). The yellow and orange stone fruits such as peaches are high in the carotenoids we turn into vitamin A and which are antioxidants. As for cherries (樱桃), they are so delicious who cares? However, they are rich in vitamin C.

When combined with berries of slices of other fruits, frozen bananas make an excellent base for thick, cooling fruit shakes and low fat “ice cream”. For this purpose, select ripe bananas for freezing as they are much sweeter. Remove the skin and place them in plastic bags or containers and freeze. If you like, a squeeze of fresh lemon juice on the bananas will prevent them turning brown. Frozen bananas will last several weeks, depending on their ripeness and the temperature of the freezer.

If you have a juicer, you can simply feed in frozen bananas and some berries or sliced fruit. Out comes a “soft-serve” creamy dessert, to be eaten right away. This makes a fun activity for a children’s party; they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below.

24. What does the author seem to like about cherries?

A. They contain protein.                          B. They are high in vitamin A.

C. They have a pleasant taste.                   D. They are rich in antioxidants.

25. Why is fresh lemon juice used in freezing bananas?

A. To make them smell better.                         B. To keep their colour.

C. To speed up their ripening.                   D. To improve their nutrition.

26. What is “a juicer” in the last paragraph?

A. A dessert.                                          B. A drink.

C. A container.                                        D. A machine.

27. From which is the text probably taken?

A. A biology textbook.                            B. A health magazine.

C. A research paper.                                       D. A travel brochure.

【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍并比较了几种水果各自的营养价值和健康功效,并列出了一些食用这些水果的方法。

24.C 【解析】细节理解题。题干问的是,作者喜欢樱桃什么。根据第二段中As for cherries (樱桃), they are so delicious who cares?(至于樱桃,因为它们很好吃谁在乎呢?)可知,作者在乎的是它的美味。故选C

25.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据第三段中的If you like, a squeeze of fresh lemon juice on the bananas will prevent them turning brown.可知,往香蕉上滴新鲜的柠檬汁是为了防止香蕉变成褐色,故新鲜的柠檬汁是被用来保持香蕉的颜色的。故选B

26.D 【解析】词义猜测题。根据最后一段中they love feeding the fruit and frozen bananas into the top of the machine and watching the ice cream come out below可知,孩子们喜欢把一些水果和冷冻的香蕉放入到这台机器的上部,然后看到冰激凌从下面出来。故可以推出a juicer就是一台机器。故选D

27.B 【解析】文章出处题。文章首先指出七月是水果盛产的季节,并指出各种水果富含的营养,最后一段指出我们可以用a juicer为孩子们做一些甜点和冰激凌,故最可能是从健康杂志上摘取的文章。A项意为:生物教科书;B项意为:一本健康杂志;C项意为:一篇研究论文;D项意为:一本旅游手册。故选B

3.2018·全国卷IIIB

Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River. Over 300 years its population grew gradually from 800 people to 8 million. But not all cities develop slowly over a long period of time. Boom towns grow from nothing almost overnight. In 1896, Dawson, Canada, was unmapped wilderness(荒野). But gold was discovered there in 1897, and two years later, it was one of the largest cities in the West, with a population of 30,000.

Dawson did not have any of the natural conveniences of cities like London or Paris. People went there for gold. They travelled over snow-covered mountains and sailed hundreds of miles up icy rivers. The path to Dawson was covered with thirty feet of wet snow that could fall without warming. An avalanche(雪崩) once closed the path, killing 63 people. For many who made it to Dawson, however, the rewards were worth the difficult trip. Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives.

But no matter how rich they were, Dawson was never comfortable. Necessities like food and wood were very expensive. But soon, the gold that Dawson depended on had all been found. The city was crowded with disappointed people with no interest in settling down, and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come. Today, people still come and go — to see where the Canadian gold rush happened. Tourism is now the chief industry of Dawson City — its present population is 762.

24. What attracted the early settlers to New York City?

A. Its business culture.

B. Its small population.

C. Its geographical position.

D. Its favourable climate.

25. What do we know about those who first dug for gold in Dawson?

A. Two-thirds of them stayed there.

B. One out of five people got rich.

C. Almost everyone gave up.

D. Half of them died.

26. What was the main reason for many people to leave Dawson?

A. They found the city too crowded.

B. They wanted to try their luck elsewhere.

C. They were unable to stand the winter.

D. They were short of food.

27. What is the text mainly about?

A. The rise and fall of a city.

B. The gold rush in Canada.

C. Journeys into the wilderness.

D. Tourism in Dawson.

【话题解读】这是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了Dawson这座城市的发展原因、过程与现状。

24.C  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第一段中Cities usually have a good reason for being where they are, like a nearby port or river. People settle in these places because they are easy to get to and naturally suited to communications and trade. New York City, for example, is near a large harbour at the mouth of the Hudson River.可知,人们选择在河边或港口设城是因为交通方便,便于做生意。而纽约就是在哈德森河口附近的一个大港口,故纽约吸引早期移民的原因是它的地理位置,故C正确。

25.B  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第二段最后一句Of the first 20,000 people who dug for gold, 4,000 got rich. About 100 of these stayed rich men for the rest of their lives.可知,在最初挖黄金的两万人中有4000人变富有,所以是五分之一的人变富了,故B正确。

26.B  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一段中and when they heard there were new gold discoveries in Alaska, they left Dawson City as quickly as they had come.可知,人们离开Dawson的主要原因是听说在Alaska发现了黄金,也就是他们要去别的地方寻找发财的机会。故B正确。

27.A  【解析】主旨大意题。第一段简要介绍城市发展的原因,引出Dawson这一城市的兴起,第二段介绍了该城市兴起的原因,第三段介绍人们选择离开该城市的原因及现在的状况,所以全文围绕Dawson这个城市的发展起伏。故A正确。

4.2018·北京卷,C

Plastic-Eating Worms

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Humans produce more than 300 million tons of plastic every year. Almost half of that winds up in landfills(垃圾填埋场), and up to 12 million tons pollute the oceans. So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms.

Researchers in Spain and England recently found that the worms of the greater wax moth can break down polyethylene, which accounts for 40% of plastics. The team left 100 wax worms on a commercial polyethylene shopping bag for 12 hours, and the worms consumed and broke down about 92 milligrams, or almost 3% of it. To confirm that the worms’ chewing alone was not responsible for the polyethylene breakdown, the researchers made some worms into paste(糊状物) and applied it to plastic films. 14 hours later the films had lost 13% of their mass — apparently broken down by enzymes () from the worms’ stomachs. Their findings were published in Current Biology in 2017.

Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. Wax is a complex mixture, but the basic bond in polyethylene, the carbon-carbon bond, is there as well, she explains, The wax worm evolved a method or system to break this bond.

Jennifer DeBruyn, a microbiologist at the University of Tennessee, who was not involved in the study, says it is not surprising that such worms can break down polyethylene. But compared with previous studies, she finds the speed of breaking down in this one exciting. The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?

Bertocchini agrees and hopes her team’s findings might one day help employ the enzyme to break down plastics in landfills. But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic.

43. What can we learn about the worms in the study?

A. They take plastics as their everyday food.

B. They are newly evolved creatures.

C. They can consume plastics.

D. They wind up in landfills.

44. According to Jennifer DeBruyn, the next step of the study is to            .

A. identify other means of the breakdown

B. find out the source of the enzyme

C. confirm the research findings

D. increase the breakdown speed

45. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that the chemical might            .

A. help to raise worms

B. help make plastic bags

C. be used to clean the oceans

D. be produced in factories in future

46. What is the main purpose of the passage?

A. To explain a study method on worms.

B. To introduce the diet of a special worm.

C. To present a way to break down plastics.

D. To propose new means to keep eco-balance.

【文章大意】本文为说明文。文章介绍了一种吃塑料的虫子大蜡螟,它胃中的酶能够降解塑料,这为解决塑料污染提供了新的途径。

43.C 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第三段Federica Bertocchini, co-author of the study, says the worms’ ability to break down their everyday food — beeswax — also allows them to break down plastic. 可知,研究结果发现,蠕虫分解日常食物的能力让它们可以分解塑料,也就是说它们可以消费塑料。故选C

44.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第四段The next step, DeBruyn says, will be to identify the cause of the breakdown. Is it an enzyme produced by the worm itself or by its gut microbes(肠道微生物)?可知,下一步研究是辨清分解的原因,查明这种酶来源于哪里,是虫子自己产生的还是它肠道里的微生物产生的。故选B

45.D 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章最后一段But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic. "可以推断出,Bertocchini希望这种化学物质将来能在工业生产中使用,而不是仅仅依靠蠕虫来分解塑料。故选D

46.C  【解析】写作意图题。根据文章第一段最后一句So far there is no effective way to get rid of it, but a new study suggests an answer may lie in the stomachs of some hungry worms. 可知,有一种新的方法被用于分解塑料。再根据最后一段最后一句But she expects using the chemical in some kind of industrial process — not simply millions of worms thrown on top of the plastic. "可知,Bertocchini希望将这种方法推广到工业中。由此可以推知写作意图为介绍一种分解塑料的方法。故选C

5.2018·天津卷,C

There’s a new frontier in 3D printing that’s beginning to come into focus: food. Recent development has made possible machines that print, cook, and serve foods on a mass scale. And the industry isn’t stopping there.

Food production

With a 3D printer, a cook can print complicated chocolate sculptures and beautiful pieces for decoration on a wedding cake. Not everybody can do that — it takes years of experience, but a printer makes it easy. A restaurant in Spain uses a Foodini to “re-create forms and pieces” of food that are “exactly the same,” freeing cooks to complete other tasks. In another restaurant, all of the dishes and desserts it serves are 3D-printed, rather than farm to table.

Sustainability(可持续性)

The global population is expected to grow to 9.6 billion by 2050, and some analysts estimate that food production will need to be raised by 50 percent to maintain current levels. Sustainability is becoming a necessity. 3D food printing could probably contribute to the solution. Some experts believe printers could use hydrocolloids (水解胶体) from plentiful renewables like algae(藻类) and grass to replace the familiar ingredients(烹饪原料). 3D printing can reduce fuel use and emissions. Grocery stores of the future might stock "food" that lasts years on end, freeing up shelf space and reducing transportation and storage requirements.

Nutrition

Future 3D food printers could make processed food healthier. Hod Lipson, a professor at Columbia University, said, “Food printing could allow consumers to print food with customized nutritional content, like vitamins. So instead of eating a piece of yesterday’s bread from the supermarket, you’d eat something baked just for you on demand.”

Challenges

Despite recent advancements in 3D food printing, the industry has many challenges to overcome. Currently, most ingredients must be changed to a paste(糊状物) before a printer can use them, and the printing process is quite time-consuming, because ingredients interact with each other in very complex ways. On top of that, most of the 3D food printers now are restricted to dry ingredients, because meat and milk products may easily go bad. Some experts are skeptical about 3D food printers, believing they are better suited for fast food restaurants than homes and high-end restaurants.

46. What benefit does 3D printing bring to food production?

A. It helps cooks to create new dishes.

B. It saves time and effort in cooking.

C. It improves the cooking conditions.

D. It contributes to restaurant decorations.

47. What can we learn about 3D food printing from Paragraphs 3?

A. It solves food shortages easily.

B. It quickens the transportation of food.

C. It needs no space for the storage of food.

D. It uses renewable materials as sources of food.

48. According to Paragraph 4, 3D-printed food _____________.

A. is more available to consumers

B. can meet individual nutritional needs

C. is more tasty than food in supermarkets

D. can keep all the nutrition in raw materials

49. What is the main factor that prevents 3D food printing from spreading widely?

A. The printing process is complicated.

B. 3D food printers are too expensive.

C. Food materials have to be dry.

D. Some experts doubt 3D food printing.

50. What could be the best title of the passage?

A. 3D Food Printing: Delicious New Technology

B. A New Way to Improve 3D Food Printing

C. The Challenges for 3D Food Production

D. 3D Food Printing: From Farm to Table

【文章大意】本文是一篇说明文。文章主要介绍了3D打印技术在食物上的应用取得了进展,但目前仍面临着许多方面的挑战。

46.B  【解析】推理判断题。根据文章Food production中叙述了没有经验的人可以用3D打印机做出复杂的巧克力雕塑和美丽的婚礼蛋糕,以及餐厅能够用3D打印出所有的菜肴和甜点,从而可以推断出3D打印的优势是节省了做饭的时间和精力。故选B

47.D  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第三段Some experts believe printers could use hydrocolloids (水解胶体) from plentiful renewables like algae(藻类) and grass to replace the familiar ingredients(烹饪原料).可知,3D打印机可以使用可再生材料作为食物来源。故选D

48.B 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章第四段Food printing could allow consumers to print food with customized nutritional content, like vitamins.(食品打印可以让消费者打印定制营养的食物),从而可以推断出3D打印出来的食物可以满足个人营养需求。故选B

49.C 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一段most of the 3D food printers now are restricted to dry ingredients, because meat and milk products may easily go bad.可知,阻止3D打印食物进一步广泛使用的原因是原料必须是干的,含水多的肉和牛奶不能应用于3D打印因为很容易坏。故选C

50.A 【解析】主旨大意题。文章主要介绍了3D打印技术在食物上的应用取得了进展,但目前仍面临着许多方面的挑战。所以用标题3D Food Printing: Delicious New Technology,故选A

6.2018·浙江卷,B

Steven Stein likes to follow garbage trucks. His strange habit makes sense when you consider that he’s an environmental scientist who studies how to reduce litter, including things that fall off garbage trucks as they drive down the road. What is even more interesting is that one of Stein's jobs is defending an industry behind the plastic shopping bags.

Americans use more than 100 billion thin film plastic bags every year. So many end up in tree branches or along highways that a growing number of cities do not allow them at checkouts(收银台) . The bags are prohibited in some 90 cities in California, including Los Angeles. Eyeing these headwinds, plastic-bag makers are hiring scientists like Stein to make the case that their products are not as bad for the planet as most people assume.

Among the bag makers' argument: many cities with bans still allow shoppers to purchase paper bags, which are easily recycled but require more energy to produce and transport. And while plastic bags may be ugly to look at, they represent a small percentage of all garbage on the ground today.

The industry has also taken aim at the product that has appeared as its replacement: reusable shopping bags. The stronger a reusable bag is, the longer its life and the more plastic-bag use it cancels out. However, longer-lasting reusable bags often require more energy to make. One study found that a cotton bag must be used at least 131 times to be better for the planet than plastic.

Environmentalists don't dispute(质疑) these points. They hope paper bags will be banned someday too and want shoppers to use the same reusable bags for years.

24. What has Steven Stein been hired to do?

A. Help increase grocery sales.                           B. Recycle the waste material.

C. Stop things falling off trucks.                         D. Argue for the use of plastic bags.

25. What does the word “headwinds”in paragraph 2 refer to?

A. Bans on plastic bags.                             B. Effects of city development.

C. Headaches caused by garbage.                D. Plastic bags hung in trees.

26. What is a disadvantage of reusable bags according to plastic-bag makers?

A. They are quite expensive.                       B. Replacing them can be difficult.

C. They are less strong than plastic bags.             D. Producing them requires more energy.

27. What is the best title for the text?

A. Plastic, Paper or Neither                                B. Industry, Pollution and Environment

C. Recycle or Throw Away                                D. Garbage Collection and Waste Control

【文章大意】文章分析了几种购物袋的使用情况,塑料袋造成了环境问题,尽管纸袋容易回收,但生产和运输需要更多的能源,希望消费者使用耐用可重复使用的袋子。

24.D  【解析】细节理解题。根据第一段one of Stein's jobs is defending an industry behind the plastic shopping bags.和第二段plastic-bag makers are hiring scientists like Stein to make the case that their products are not as bad for the planet as most people assume.可知塑料袋生产商雇用Steven Stein是为了证明他们的产品并不像大多数人想象的那样对地球有害,是对塑料袋被禁用的解释和争论。故选D

25.A 【解析】词义猜测题。上文介绍在许多美国大城市塑料袋被禁用,看到这种现状,塑料袋生产商雇用Steven Stein等科学家是为了证明他们的产品并不像大多数人想象的那样对地球有害。headwinds逆风,此处指塑料袋被禁用的现状,即Bans on plastic bags,故选A

26.D 【解析】细节理解题。根据第四段However, longer-lasting reusable bags often require more energy to make.可知塑料袋生产商认为生产耐用且能重复使用的袋子需要更多的能量,故选D

27.A  【解析】标题归纳题。文章讲述了使用塑料袋造成的环境问题,纸袋容易回收,但生产和运输需要更多的能源,希望消费者使用耐用可重复使用的袋子。对这三种方式进行了对比,Plastic, Paper or Neither既能概括全文,又能吸引读者,最适合作为标题。故选A

7.2018·浙江卷,C

As cultural symbols go, the American car is quite young. The Model T Ford was built at the Piquette Plant in Michigan a century ago, with the first rolling off the assembly line(装配线)on September 27, 1908. Only eleven cars were produced the next month. But eventually Henry Ford would build fifteen million of them.

   Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger. For most of the last century, the car represented what it meant to be American—going forward at high speed to find new worlds. The road novel, the road movie, these are the most typical American ideas, born of abundant petrol, cheap cars and a never-ending interstate highway system, the largest public works project in history.

   In 1928 Herbert Hoover imagined an America with “a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.” Since then, this society has moved onward, never looking back, as the car transformed America from a farm-based society into an industrial power.

   The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster. In America the demand for oil has grown by 22 percent since 1990.

   The problems of excessive(过度的)energy consumption, climate change and population growth have been described in a book by the American writer Thomas L. Friedman. He fears the worst, but hopes for the best.

   Friedman points out that the green economy(经济)is a chance to keep American strength. “The ability to design, build and export green technologies for producing clean water, clean air and healthy and abundant food is going to be the currency of power in the new century.”

28. Why is hamburger mentioned in paragraph 2?

   A. To explain Americans’ love for travelling by car.

   B. To show the influence of cars on American culture.

C. To stress the popularity of fast food with Americans.

D. To praise the effectiveness of America’s road system.

29. What has the use of cars in America led to?

   A. Decline of economy.                                          B. Environmental problems.

C. A shortage of oil supply.                                      D. A farm-based society.

30. What is Friedman’s attitude towards America’s future?

   A. Ambiguous.                   B. Doubtful.              C. Hopeful.                D. Tolerant.

【文章大意】文章讲述了汽车在美国经济和文化上的重要作用,也指出了汽车带来的环境问题。

28.B  【解析】推理判断题。根据第二段Modern America was born on the road, behind a wheel. The car shaped some of the most lasting aspects of American culture: the roadside diner, the billboard, the motel, even the hamburger.可知现代美国诞生于公路和汽车,汽车塑造了美国文化最持久的一些方面。Hamburger就是汽车塑造的美国文化的一个方面。用这个例子是在说明汽车对美国文化的影响,故选B

29.B  【解析】细节理解题。根据第四段The cars that drove the American Dream have helped to create a global ecological disaster.可知美国汽车的迅速发展,导致生态灾难。故选B

30.C  【解析】推理判断题。根据倒数第二段中的He fears the worst, but hopes for the best. 和最后一段中的Friedman points out that the green economy(经济)is a chance to keep American strength.可见Friedman虽然对未来担心,但抱有最好的希望,他指出了发展绿色积极的想法。可见Friedman对未来是充满希望的,故选C

8.2018·江苏卷,B

In the 1760s, Mathurin Roze opened a series of shops that boasted(享有) a special meat soup called consommé. Although the main attraction was the soup, Roze's chain shops also set a new standard for dining out, which helped to establish Roze as the inventor of the modern restaurant.

Today, scholars have generated large amounts of instructive research about restaurants. Take visual hints that influence what we eat: diners served themselves about 20 percent more pasta(意大利面食) when their plates matched their food. When a dark-colored cake was served on a black plate rather than a white one, customers recognized it as sweeter and more tasty.

Lighting matters, too. When Berlin restaurant customers ate in darkness, they couldn't tell how much they'd had: those given extra-large shares ate more than everyone else, none the wiser—they didn’t feel fuller, and they were just as ready for dessert.

Time is money, but that principle means different things for different types of restaurants. Unlike fast-food places, fine dining shops prefer customers to stay longer and spend. One way to encourage customers to stay and order that extra round: put on some Mozart(莫扎特).When classical, rather than pop, music was playing, diners spent more. Fast music hurried diners out.

Particular scents also have an effect: diners who got the scent of lavender(薰衣草) stayed longer and spent more than those who smelled lemon, or no scent.

Meanwhile, things that you might expect to discourage spending—"bad" tables, crowding. high prices — don't necessarily. Diners at bad tables — next to the kitchen door, say — spent nearly as much as others but soon fled. It can be concluded that restaurant keepers need not "be overly concerned about ‘bad’ tables," given that they're profitable. As for crowds, a Hong Kong study found that they increased a restaurant's reputation, suggesting great food at fair prices. And doubling a buffet's price led customers to say that its pizza was 11 percent tastier.

58. The underlined phrase "none the wiser" in paragraph 3 most probably implies that the customers were         .

A. not aware of eating more than usual

B. not willing to share food with others

C. not conscious of the food quality

D. not fond of the food provided

59. How could a fine dining shop make more profit?

A. Playing classical music.

B. Introducing lemon scent.

C. Making the light brighter,

D. Using plates of larger size.

60. What does the last paragraph talk about?

A. Tips to attract more customers.

B. Problems restaurants are faced with.

C. Ways to improve restaurants' reputation.

D. Common misunderstandings about restaurants.

【文章大意】本文为说明文,介绍了现代餐馆面临的经营困境和解决方案,介绍了刺激消费和食欲的几种方法,以及人们对餐厅就餐的一些错误认识。

58.A  【解析】词义猜测题。根据文章第三段划线部分的前句they couldn't tell how much they'd had: those given extra-large shares ate more than everyone else,可知在黑暗中,他们说不清自己吃了多少,再根据划线后的句子they didn’t feel fuller, and they were just as ready for dessert.可知他们虽然吃得很多,但并没有感觉更饱,仍然在等着吃甜点,所以他们没有意识到自己吃多了,所以A正确。

59.A  【解析】细节理解题。根据第四段中的One way to encourage customers to stay and order that extra round: put on some Mozart(莫扎特)可知,要想让客人呆的时间更长应该播放莫扎特等古典音乐而不是流行音乐。Particular scents also have an effect: diners who got the scent of lavender(薰衣草)stayed longer and spent more than those who smelled lemon, or no scent.引入薰衣草香而不是柠檬香,而D项文章没有提及,所以用排除方法可以选A

60.D  【解析】主旨大意题。根据文章最后一段第一句Meanwhile, things that you might expect to discourage spending—"bad" tables, crowdinghigh prices — don't necessarily.可知你认为可能会影响人们消费的因素如不好的桌子,拥挤以及高价等不一定会真影响人们的消费,然后依次举例进行了证明,所以本段主要讲的是人们对于饭店的几个误解,故选D

9.2018·江苏卷,D

Children as young as ten are becoming dependent on social media for their sense of self-worth, a major study warned.

It found many youngsters(少年)now measure their status by how much public approval they get online, often through “likes”. Some change their behaviour in real life to improve their image on the web.

The report into youngsters aged from 8 to 12 was carried out by Children's Commissioner (专员)Anne Longfield. She said social media firms were exposing children to major emotional risks, with some youngsters starting secondary school ill-equipped to cope with the tremendous pressure they faced online.

Some social apps were popular among the children even though they supposedly require users to be at least 13.The youngsters admitted planning trips around potential photo-opportunities and then messaging friends—and friends of friends — to demand “likes” for their online posts.

The report found that youngsters felt their friendships could be at risk if they did not respond to social media posts quickly, and around the clock.

Children aged 8 to 10 were "starting to feel happy" when others liked their posts. However, those in the 10 to 12 age group were "concerned with how many people like their posts", suggesting a “need” for social recognition that gets stronger the older they become.

Miss Longfield warned that a generation of children risked growing up "worried about their appearance and image as a result of the unrealistic lifestyles they follow on platforms, and increasingly anxious about switching off due to the constant demands of social media.

She said: "Children are using social media with family and friends and to play games when they are in primary school. But what starts as fun usage of apps turns into tremendous pressure in real social media interaction at secondary school."

As their world expanded, she said, children compared themselves to others online in a way that was "hugely damaging in terms of their self-identity, in terms of their confidence, but also in terms of their ability to develop themselves".

Miss Longfield added: "Then there is this push to connect—if you go offline, will you miss something, will you miss out, will you show that you don't care about those people you are following, all of those come together in a huge way at once." "For children it is very, very difficult to cope with emotionally." The Children's Commissioner for England's study—life in Likes—found that children as young as 8 were using social media platforms largely for play.

However, the research—involving eight groups of 32 children aged 8 to 12—suggested that as they headed toward their teens, they became increasingly anxious online.

By the time they started secondary school—at age 11—children were already far more aware of their image online and felt under huge pressure to ensure their posts were popular, the report found.

However, they still did not know how to cope with mean-spirited jokes, or the sense of incompetence they might feel if they compared themselves to celebrities(名人)or more brilliant friends online. The report said they also faced pressure to respond to messages at all hours of the day—especially at secondary school when more youngsters have mobile phones.

The Children’s Commissioner said schools and parents must now do more to prepare children for the emotional minefield(雷区)they faced online. And she said social media companies must also "take more responsibility". They should either monitor their websites better so that children do not sign up too early, or they should adjust their websites to the needs of younger users.

Javed Khan, of children's charity Bamardo's, said: "It's vital that new compulsory age- appropriate relationship and sex education lessons in England should help equip children to deal with the growing demands of social media.

“It’s also hugely important for parents to know which apps their children are using.”

65. Why did some secondary school students feel too much pressure?

A. They were not provided with adequate equipment.

B. They were not well prepared for emotional risks.

C. They were required to give quick responses.

D. They were prevented from using mobile phones.

66. Some social app companies were to blame because            .

A. they didn't adequately check their users' registration

B. they organized photo trips to attract more youngsters

C. they encouraged youngsters to post more photos

D. they didn't stop youngsters from staying up late

67. Children's comparing themselves to others online may lead to           .

A. less friendliness to each other

B. lower self-identity and confidence

C. an increase in online cheating

D. a stronger desire to stay online

68. According to Life in Likes, as children grew, they became more anxious to         .

A. circulate their posts quickly                                  B. know the qualities of their posts

C. use mobile phones for play                                   D. get more public approval

69. What should parents do to solve the problem?

A. Communicate more with secondary schools.

B. Urge media companies to create safer apps.

C. Keep track of children's use of social media.

D. Forbid their children from visiting the web.

70. What does the passage mainly talk about?

A. The influence of social media on children.

B. The importance of social media to children.

C. The problem in building a healthy relationship.

D. The measure to reduce risks from social media.

【文章大意】本文为说明文,主要介绍了社交媒体(social media ) 使得8-12 岁的孩子面临很多压力,并分析了原因,提出了建议。

65.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第三段第二句话She said social media firms were exposing children to major emotional risks, with some youngsters starting secondary school ill-equipped to cope with the tremendous pressure they faced online.可知一些社会媒体公司使孩子们处于大的情感压力下,从而使孩子们感到巨大的压力,故B正确。

66.A 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章第四段第一句话Some social apps were popular among the children even though they supposedly require users to be at least 13.可知一些apps 很受孩子们欢迎,尽管它们要求使用者不低于13岁,言外之意,他们没有对孩子的年龄进行监管,故选A

67.B 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章第九段children compared themselves to others online in a way that was "hugely damaging in terms of their self-identity, in terms of their confidence, but also in terms of their ability to develop themselves".可知孩子在网上与其他人比较损害他们的自尊心,自信心以及自我发展的能力,故B正确。

68.D 【解析】推理判断题。根据文章第12However, the research—involving eight groups of 32 children aged 8 to 12—suggested that as they headed toward their teens, they became increasingly anxious online.可知随着孩子年龄的增长,他们开始渴望上网,再根据13By the time they started secondary school—at age 11—children were already far more aware of their image online and felt under huge pressure to ensure their posts were popular, the report found.可以推断出他们的压力源于他们渴望自己的发帖能受欢迎、被认可,由此可见他们渴望得到公众的认可。故选D

69.C 【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一段It’s also hugely important for parents to know which apps their children are using.可以推断出父母需要了解孩子在使用什么apps,所以应该时刻跟踪了解孩子对于社交app的使用。故选C

70.A 【解析】主旨大意题。根据文章第一段Children as young as ten are becoming dependent on social media for their sense of self-worth, a major study warned.可知本文为新闻报道体,文章主要介绍teens 变得越来越依赖社交媒体。再根据全文内容可知文章主要介绍了社交媒体对孩子的影响,所以A正确。